• 1
    Ansari, S.A., Sattar, S.A., Springthorpe, V.S., Wells, G.A., Tostowaryk, W. (1989) In vivo protocol for testing efficacy of hand-washing agents against viruses and bacteria: experiments with rotavirus and Escherichia coli. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 55, 31133118.
  • 2
    AOAC (1998) Official Method 960.09. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International 17th edn. AOAC International, Washington DC, USA.
  • 3
    Barrie, D., Wilson, J.A., Hoffman, P.N., Kramer, J.M. (1992) Bacillus cereus meningitis in two neurosurgical patients: an investigation into the source of the organism. Journal of Infection 25, 291297.
  • 4
    Graham, M.L., Sattar, S.A., Springthorpe, V.S. (1996) Ex vivo protocol for testing virus survival on human skin: experiments with Herpesvirus 2. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 42524255.
  • 5
    LeChevallier, M.W. & McFeters, G.A. (1985) Enumerating injured coliforms in drinking water. Journal of the American Water Works Association 77, 8187.
  • 6
    Mackintosh, C.A. & Hoffman, P.N. (1984) An extended model for transfer of microorganisms via the hands: differences between organisms and the effect of alcohol disinfection. Journal of Hygiene 92, 345355.
  • 7
    Marples, R.R. & Towers, A.G. (1979) A laboratory model for the investigation of contact transfer of micro-organisms. Journal of Hygiene 82, 237248.
  • 8
    Mbithi, J.N., Springthorpe, V.S., Boulet, J.R., Sattar, S.A. (1992) Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30, 757763.
  • 9
    McNeil, E. (1964) Dissemination of microorganisms by fabrics and leather. Developmental and Industrial Microbiology 5, 3035.
  • 10
    Morris, G. Jr & Potter, M. (1997) Emergence of new pathogens as a function of changes in host susceptibility. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3, 435441.
  • 11
    Neely, A.C. & Maley, M.P. (2000) Survival of enterococci and staphylococci on hospital fabrics and plastic. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38, 724726.
  • 12
    Noskin, G.A., Stosor, V., Cooper, I., Peterson, L.R. (1995) Recovery of vancomycin-resistant enterococci on fingertips and environmental surfaces. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 16, 577581.
  • 13
    Popham, W.J. & Sirotnik, K.A. (1992) Understanding Statistics in Education. Itasca, IL, USA: F.E. Peacock Publishers.
  • 14
    Saltzman, T.C., Clark, J.J., Klemm, L.M. (1967) Hand contamination of personnel as a mechanism of cross-infection in nosocomial infections with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella aerobacter. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 7, 97100.
  • 15
    Sattar, S.A. & Springthorpe, V.S. (1996) Transmission of viral infections through animate and inanimate surfaces and infection control through disinfection. In Modeling Disease Transmission and its Prevention by Disinfection ed. Hurst, C.J. pp. 224–257. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • 16
    Scott, E. & Bloomfield, S.F. (1990) The survival and transfer of microbial contamination via cloths, hands and utensils. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 68, 271278.
  • 17
    Standaert, S.M., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaeffner, W. (1994) Nosocomial transmission of salmonella gastroenteritis to laundry workers in a nursing home. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 15, 2226.
  • 18
    Strausbaugh, L. (1997) Antimicrobial resistance: problems, laments and hopes. American Journal of Infection Control 25, 294296.
  • 19
    Terpstra, P.M.J. (1998) Domestic and institutional hygiene in relation to sustainability. Historical, social and environmental implications. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 41, 169175.
  • 20
    Weernink, A., Severin, W.P.J., Tjernberg, I., Dijkshoorn, L. (1995) Pillows, an unexpected source of Acinetobacter. Journal of Hospital Infection 29, 189199.
  • 21
    Whyte, W. (1988) The role of clothing and drapes in the operating room. Journal of Hospital Infection 11 (Suppl. C), 217.
  • 22
    Wilkins, K. & Park, E. (1998) Home care in Canada. Health Reports 10, 2937.
  • 23
    Wilkoff, L.J., Westbrook, L., Dixon, G.J. (1969) Factors affecting the persistence of Staphylococcus aureus on fabrics. Applied Microbiology 17, 268274.