• 1
    Alpas, H., Kalchayanand, B.F., Sikes, A., Dunne, C.P., Ray, B. (1999) Variation in resistance to hydrostatic pressure among strains of food-borne pathogens. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 , 42484251.
  • 2
    Armstrong, G.L., Hollingsworth, J., Morris, J.G. (1996) Emerging foodborne pathogens –Escherichia coli O157–H7 as a model of entry of a new pathogen into the food-supply of the developed world. Epidemiological Reviews 18 , 2951.
  • 3
    Baird-Parker, T.C. & Tompkin, R.B. (2000) Risk and microbiological criteria. In The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food eds Lund, B.M., Baird-Parker, T. and Gould, G.W. pp. 1852–1885. Gaithersburg, USA: Aspen Publishers Ltd.
  • 4
    Benito, A., Ventoura, G., Casadei, M.A., Robinson, T.P., Mackey, B.M. (1999) Variation in resistance of natural isolates of Escherichia coli O157 to high hydrostatic pressure, mild heat, and other stresses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 , 15641569.
  • 5
    Besser, R.E., Lett, S.M., Weber, J.T. et al. (1993) An outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome from Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh-pressed cider. Journal of the American Chemical Association 269 , 22172220.
  • 6
    Cody, S.H., Glynn, M.K., Farrar, J.A. et al. (1999) An outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection from unpasteurised apple juice. Annals of International Medicine 130 , 202209.
  • 7
    Davis, M.J., Coote, P.J., O'Byrne, C.P. (1996) Acid tolerance in Listeria monocytogenes: the adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) and growth-phase-dependent acid resistance. Microbiology 142 , 29752982.
  • 8
    Erickson, J.P., Stamer, J.W., Hayes, M., McKenna, D.N., Van Alstine, L.A. (1995) An assessment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination risks in commercial mayonnaise from pasteurised eggs and environmental sources, and behaviour in low-pH dressings. Journal of Food Protection 58 , 10591064.
  • 9
    Farber, J.M. & Peterkin, P.I. (1991) Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen. Microbiological Reviews 55 , 476511.
  • 10
    Garcia-Graells, V., Hauben, E.J.A., Michiels, C.W. (1998) High-pressure inactivation and sublethal injury of pressure-resistant Escherichia coli mutants in fruit juices. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64 , 15661568.
  • 11
    Glass, K.A., Loeffelholz, J.M., Ford, J.P., Doyle, M.P. (1992) Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as affected by pH or sodium chloride and in fermented, dry sausage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 58 , 25132516.
  • 12
    Hoover, D. (1997) Minimally processed fruits and vegetables: reducing microbial load by nonthermal physical treatments. Food Technology 51 , 6671.
  • 13
    Humphrey, T.J., Williams, A., McAlpine, K., Lever, M.S., Guard-Petter, J., Cox, J.M. (1996) Isolates of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis PT 4 with enhanced heat and acid tolerance are more virulent in mice and more invasive in chicken. Epidemiology and Infection 117 , 7988.
  • 14
    ICMSF (1978) Microorganisms in Foods: Their Significance and Methods of Enumeration eds Elliott, R.P. and Lundbeck, H. International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods. Toronto and London: University of Toronto Press.
  • 15
    Jordan, S.L., Glover, J., Malcolm, L., Thomson-Carter, F.M., Booth, I.R., Park, S.F. (1999) Augmentation of killing of Escherichia coli O157 by combinations of lactate, ethanol and low-pH conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 , 13081311.
  • 16
    Linton, M., McClements, J.M.J., Patterson, M.F. (1999) Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during storage in pressure-treated orange juice. Journal of Food Protection 62 , 10381040.
  • 17
    Mackey, B.M., Forestière, K., Isaacs, N.S. (1995) Factors affecting the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to high hydrostatic pressure. Food Biotechnology 9 , 111.
  • 18
    McCarthy, M. (1996) E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in USA traced to apple juice. Lancet 348 , 12991299.
  • 19
    Miller, L.G. & Kaspar, C.W. (1994) Escherichia coli O157:H7 acid tolerance and survival in apple cider. Journal of Food Protection 57 , 460464.
  • 20
    Morgan, D., Newman, C.P., Hutchinson, D.N., Walker, A.M., Rowe, B., Majid. F. (1993) Verotoxin producing Escherichia coli O157 infections associated with the consumption of yoghurt. Epidemiology and Infection 111 , 181187.
  • 21
    Patterson, M. (1999) High-pressure treatment of foods. In The Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology eds Robertson, R.K., Batt, C.A. and Patel, P.D. pp. 1059–1065. London: Academic Press.
  • 22
    Patterson, M.F., Quinn, M., Simpson, R., Gilmour, A. (1995) Sensitivity of vegetative pathogens to high hydrostatic pressure treatment in phosphate-buffered saline and foods. Journal of Food Protection 58 , 524529.
  • 23
    Sado, P.N., Jinneman, K.C., Busby, G.J., Sorg, S.M., Omiecinski, C.J. (1998) Identification of Listeria monocytogenes from unpasteurised apple juice using rapid test kits. Journal of Food Protection 61 , 11991202.
  • 24
    Simpson, R.K. & Gilmour, A. (1997) The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on Listeria monocytogenes in phosphate-buffered saline and model food systems. Journal of Applied Microbiology 83 , 181188.
  • 25
    Stewart, C.M., Jewett, F.F., Dunne, C.P., Hoover, D.G. (1997) Effect of concurrent high hydrostatic pressure, acidity and heat on the injury and destruction of Listeria monocytogenes. Journal of Food Safety 17 , 2336.
  • 26
    Thakur, B.R. & Nelson, P.E. (1998) High-pressure processing and preservation of food. Food Reviews International 14 , 427447.
  • 27
    Tilden, J., Young, W., McNamara, A.-M. et al. (1996) A new route of transmission for Escherichia coli: infection from dry fermented salami. American Journal of Public Health 86 , 11421145.
  • 28
    Uljas, H.E. & Ingham, S.C. (1999) Combinations of intervention treatments resulting in 5-log10-unit reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 organisms in apple cider. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 65 , 19241929.
  • 29
    Weagant, S.D., Bryant, J.L., Bark, D.H. (1994) Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mayonnaise and mayonnaise-based sauces at room and refrigerated temperatures. Journal of Food Protection 57 , 629631.
  • 30
    Zhao, T. & Doyle, M.P. (1994) Fate of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in commercial mayonnaise. Journal of Food Protection 57 , 780783.