• 1
    Asperger, H. (1993) Microbiology of pasteurized milk. Bulletin of the IDF 281, 1416.
  • 2
    Breand, S., Fardel, G., Flandrois, J.P., Rosso, L., Tomassone, R. (1997) A model describing the relationship between lag time and temperature increase duration. International Journal of Food Microbiology 38, 157167.DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1605(97)00093-7
  • 3
    Bunning, V.K., Crawford, R.G., Tierney, J.T., Peeler, J.T. (1982) Thermotolerance of heat-shocked Listeria monocytogenes in milk exposed to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 54, 364370.
  • 4
    Cerf, O. & Griffiths, M.W. (2000) Mycobacterium paratuberculosis heat resistance. Letters in Applied Microbiology 30, 341344.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00718.x
  • 5
    Chiodini, R.J. & Hermon-Taylor, J. (1993) The thermal resistance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk under conditions simulating pasteurization. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 5, 629631.
  • 6
    Chiodini, R.J., Van Kruiningen, H.J., Merkal, R.S., Thayer, W.R. Jr, Coutu, J.A. (1984) Characteristics of an unclassified Mycobacterium species isolated from patients with Crohn’s disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 20, 966971.
  • 7
    Collins, M.T., Lambrecht, R.S., McDonals, J. (1988) Radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from clinical specimens. In Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis ed. Merkal, R.S. and Thorel, M.F. pp. 179–188. Maisons-Alfort: Laboratoire Central de Recherches.
  • 8
    Damato, J.J. & Collins, M.T. (1990) Growth of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in radiometric, Middlebrook and egg-based media. Veterinary Microbiology 22, 3142.
  • 9
    D'Aoust, J.Y. (1978) Recovery of sublethally heat-injured Salmonella typhimurium on supplemented plating media. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 35, 483486.
  • 10
    Farber, J.M., Daley, E., Coates, F., Emmons, D.B., McKellar, R. (1992) Factors influencing survival of Listeria monocytogenes in milk in a high-temperature short time pasteurizer. Journal of Food Protection 55, 946951.
  • 11
    Freeman, T.R., Bucy, J.L., Rudnick, A.W. (1968) Effect of heat treatment and storage temperature on phosphate reactivation in butter. Journal of Dairy Science 51, 19261927.
  • 12
    Garibaldi, J.A., Ijichi, K., Bayne, H.G. (1969) Effect of pH and chelating agents on the heat resistance and viability of Salmonella typhimurium Tm-1 and Salmonella senftenberg 775W in egg white. Applied Microbiology 18, 318322.
  • 13
    Grant, I.R., Ball, H.J., Neill, S.D., Rowe, M.T. (1996a) Inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in cows’ milk at pasteurization temperatures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 631636.
  • 14
    Grant, I.R., Ball, H.J., Neill, S.D., Rowe, M.T. (1996c) Investigation of the thermal death of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis during pasteurization. In Heat Treatments and Alternative Methods pp. 452–457. Brussels, Belgium: International Dairy Federation.
  • 15
    Grant, I.R., Ball, H.J., Rowe, M.T. (1996b) Thermal inactivation of several Mycobacterium spp. in milk by pasteurization. Letters in Applied Microbiology 22, 253256.
  • 16
    Grant, I.R., Ball, H.J., Rowe, M.T. (1997) A novel staining technique for assessing clumping and viability of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells during pasteurization. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis ed. Chiodini, R.J., Hines, M.E. and Collins, M.T. pp. 374–376. Rehoboth, MA: International Association for Paratuberculosis.
  • 17
    Grant, I.R., Hall, H.J., Rowe, M.T. (1998) Effect of high-temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization on milk containing low numbers of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26, 166170.
  • 18
    Grant, I.R., Hall, H.J., Rowe, M.T. (1999) Effect of higher pasteurization temperatures, and longer holding times at 72°C, on the inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk. Letters in Applied Microbiology 28, 461465.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00557.x
  • 19
    Harnulv, B.G. & Snygg, B.G. (1972) Heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores at various water activities. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 35, 615624.
  • 20
    Hermier, J., Bergué, P., Cerf, O. (1975) Relationship between temperature and sterilizing efficiency of heat treatments of equal duration. Experimental testing with suspensions of spores in milk heated in an ultra-high temperature sterilizer. Journal of Dairy Research 42, 437444.
  • 21
    Hope, A.F., Tulk, P.A., Condron, R.J. (1997) Pasteurization of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in whole milk. In Proceedings of the 5th International Colloquium on Paratuberculosis pp. 377–382. September 29-October 4, 1996. International Association for Paratuberculosis. Madison, WI, USA.
  • 22
    Huemer, I.A., Klijn, N., Vogelsang, H.W.J., Langeveld, L.P.M. (1998) Thermal death kinetics of spores of Bacillus sporothermodurans isolated from UHT milk. International Dairy Journal 8, 851855.DOI: 10.1016/s0958-6946(98)00129-0
  • 23
    Jay, J.M. (1992) High temperature food preservation and characteristics of thermophilic microorganisms. In Modern Food Microbiology, 4th edn. pp. 335–355. New York: Chapman & Hall.
  • 24
    Keswani, J. & Frank, J.F. (1998) Thermal inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in milk. Journal of Food Protection 61, 974978.
  • 25
    Knabel, S.J., Walker, H.W., Hartman, P.A., Mendonca, A.F. (1990) Effects of growth temperature and strictly anaerobic recovery on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during pasteurization. Applied Environmental Microbiology 56, 370376.
  • 26
    Laurent, Y., Arino, S., Rosso, L. (1999) A quantitative approach for studying the effect of heat treatment conditions on resistance and recovery of Bacillus cereus spores. International Journal of Food Microbiology 48, 149157.DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1605(99)00039-2
  • 27
    MacDonald, F. & Sutherland, A.D. (1993) Effect of heat treatment on Listeria monocytogenes and gram negative bacteria in sheep, cow and goat milk. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 75, 336343.
  • 28
    Mackey, B.M. & Derrick, C.M. (1986) Elevation of the heat resistance of Salmonella typhimurium sublethal heat shock. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 61, 389393.
  • 29
    Merkal, R.S., Sneed Lyle, P., Whipple, D.L. (1981) Heat inactivation of in vivo- and in vitro-grown Mycobacteria in meat products. Applied Environmental Microbiology 41, 14841485.
  • 30
    Meylan, M., Rings, D.M., Shulaw, W.P., Kowalski, J.J., Bech-Nielsen, S., Hoffsis, G.F. (1996) Survival of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and preservation of immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum under experimental conditions simulating pasteurization. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57, 15801585.
  • 31
    Millar, D., Ford, J., Sanderson, J., Withey, S., Tizard, M., Doran, T., Hermon-Taylor, J. (1996) IS900 PCR to detect Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in retail supplies of whole pasteurized cows’ milk in England and Wales. Applied Environmental Microbiology 62, 34463452.
  • 32
    Ordonez, J.A., Aguilera, M.A., Garcia, M.L., Sanz, B. (1987) Effect of combined ultrasonic and heat treatment (thermoultrasonication) on the survival of a strain of Staphylococcusaureus. Journal of Dairy Research 54, 6167.
  • 33
    Palop, A., Raso, J., Pagan, R., Condon, S., Sala, F.J. (1996) Influence of pH on heat resistance of Bacillus licheniformis in buffer and homogenized foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology 29, 110.DOI: 10.1016/0168-1605(95)00010-0
  • 34
    Palop, A., Raso, J., Pagan, R., Condon, S., Sala, F.J. (1999) Influence of pH on heat resistance of Bacillus coagulans in buffer and homogenized foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology 46, 243249.DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1605(98)00199-8
  • 35
    Peck, M.W., Lund, B.M., Fairbairn, D.A., Kaspersson, A.S., Undeland, P.C. (1995) Effect of heat treatment on survival of, and growth from, spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum at refrigeration temperatures. Applied Environmental Microbiology 61, 17801785.
  • 36
    Periago, P.M., Fernandez, P.S., Salmeron, M.C., Martinez, A. (1998) Predicitve model to describe the combined effect of pH and on apparent heat resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus. International Journal of Food Microbiology 44, 2130.DOI: 10.1016/s0168-1605(98)00111-1
  • 37
    Semanchek, J.J., Golden, D.A., Williams, R.C. (1999) Growth and survival of uninjured and sublethally heat-injured Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef extract medium as influenced by package atmosphere and storage temperature. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 45, 263268.DOI: 10.1139/cjm-45-3-263
  • 38
    Sockett, D.C., Carr, D.J., Collins, M.T. (1992) Evaluation of conventional and radiometric fecal cultures and a commercial DNA probe for diagnostics of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infections in cattle. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 56, 148153.
  • 39
    Staal, P. (1986) IDF and the development of milk pasteurization. IDF Bulletin 200, 46.
  • 40
    Stabel, J.R., Steadham, E.M., Bolin, C.A. (1997) Heat inactivation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw milk: are current pasteurization conditions effective? Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63, 49754977.
  • 41
    Sung, N. & Collins, M.T. (1998) Thermal tolerance of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64, 9991005.
  • 42
    Sweeney, R.W., Whitlock, R.H., Rosenberger, A.E. (1992) Mycobacterium paratuberculosis culture from milk and supramammary lymph nodes of infected asymptomatic cows. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30, 166171.
  • 43
    Wilkinson, G. & Davies, F.L. (1973) Germination of spores of Bacillus cereus in milk and milk dialysates: effect of heat treatment. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 36, 485496.
  • 44
    Yamamori, T. & Yura, T. (1982) Genetic control of heat-shock protein synthesis and its bearing on growth and thermal resistance in Escherichia coli K-12. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA79, 860864.