• 1
    Baillie, L.W.J. (2000) Bacillus anthracis. In Encyclopaedia of Food Microbiology ed. Batt, C.A., Robinson, R.K. and Patel, P.D. Vol. 1, pp. 129–135. Academic Press.
  • 2
    Baillie, L.W.J. & Read, T.D. (2001) Bacillus anthracis, a bug with Attitude! Current Opinions in Microbiology 4, 7881.
  • 3
    Baillie, L.W.J., Johnson, M., Manchee, R.J. (1994) Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis strain IS53 for the production of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen. Letters in Applied Microbiology 19, 225227.
  • 4
    Baillie, L.W.J., Moore, P., Manchee, R.J. (1996) Development of a Bacillus subtilis based system for the expression of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax, 19–21 September, 1995, Winchester, UK. Salisbury Medical Bulletin 87, 133135.
  • 5
    Baillie, L.W.J., Moir, A., Manchee, R.J. (1998) The expression of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Applied Microbiology 84, 741746.
  • 6
    Barnard, J.P. & Friedlander, A.M. (1999) Vaccination against anthrax with attenuated recombinant strains of Bacillus anthracis that produced protective antigen. Infection and Immunity 67, 562567.
  • 7
    Belton, F.C. & Strange, R.E. (1954) Studies on a protective antigen produced in vitro from Bacillus anthracis: medium and methods of production. British Journal of Experimental Pathology 35, 144152.
  • 8
    Bennett, A.M., Lescott, T., Phillpotts, R.J., Mackett, M., Titball, R.W. (1999) Recombinant Vaccinia virus protect against Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin. Viral Immunology 12, 97105.
  • 9
    Cohen, S., Mendelson, I., Altboum, Z., Kobiler, D., Elhanany, E., Leitner, M., Inbar, I., Rosenberg, H., Gozez, Y., Barak, R., Fisher, M., Kronman, C., Velan, B., Shafferman, A. (2000) Attenuated nontoxinogenic and nonencapsulated recombinant Bacillus anthracis spore vaccines protect against anthrax. Infection and Immunity 68, 45494558.
  • 10
    Coulson, N.M. (1993) Expression of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis in attenuated Salmonella: a potential oral anthrax vaccine. PhD Thesis. University of Warwick.
  • 11
    Coulson, N.M., Fulop, M., Titball, R.W. (1994) Bacillus anthracis protective antigen, expressed in Salmonella typhimurium SL 3261, affords protection against anthrax spore challenge. Vaccine 12, 13951401.
  • 12
    Dixon, T.C., Melselson, M., Guillemin, J., Hanna, P.C. (1999) Anthrax. New England Journal of Medicine 341, 815826.
  • 13
    Dong, S.L. (1990) Progress in the control and research of anthrax in China. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax, 11–13 April, 1989, Winchester UK. Salisbury Medical Bulletin 68, 104105.
  • 14
    Donganay, M. (1990) Human anthrax in Sivas, Turkey. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax, 11–13 April, 1989, Winchester UK. Salisbury Medical Bulletin 68, 1313.
  • 15
    Duesbery, N.S., Webb, C.P., Leppla, S.H., Gorodon, V.M., Klimpel, K.R., Copeland, T.D., Ahn, N.G., Oskarsson, M.K., Fukasawa, K., Paull, K.D., Vande Woude, G.F. (1998) Proteolytic inactivation of MAP-Kinase-Kinase by Anthrax Lethal Factor. Science 280, 734737.DOI: 10.1126/science.280.5364.734
  • 16
    Friedlander, A.M., Welkos, S.L., Pitt, M.L.M., Ezzell, J.W., Worsham, P.L., Rose, K.J., Ivins, B.E., Lowe, J.R., Howe, G.B., Mikesell, P., Lawrence, W.B. (1993) Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalation anthrax. Journal of Infectious Diseases 167, 12391242.
  • 17
    Fujikura, T. (1990) Current occurrence of anthrax in man and animals. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax, 11–13 April, 1989, Winchester, UK. Salisbury Medical Bulletin 68, 11.
  • 18
    Gold, H. (1967) Treatment of anthrax. Federation Proceedings 26, 15631568.
  • 19
    Gu, M.L., Mi-Li, Leppla, S.H., Klinman, D.M. (1999) Protection against anthrax by vaccination with a DNA plasmid encoding anthrax protective antigen. Vaccine 17, 340344.DOI: 10.1016/s0264-410x(98)00210-2
  • 20
    Guidi-Rontani, C., Weber-Levy, M., Labruyere, E., Mock, M. (1999) Germination of Bacillus anthracis spores within aveolar macrophages. Molecular Microbiology 31, 917.
  • 21
    Hambleton, P., Carman, J.A., Melling, J. (1984) Anthrax: the disease in relation to vaccines. Vaccine 2, 125132.
  • 22
    Hanna, P.C. (1997) Anthrax pathogenesis and host response. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 225, 1335.
  • 23
    Hanna, P.C. & Ireland, J.A. (1999) Understanding Bacillus anthracis pathogenesis. Trends in Microbiology 5, 180182.DOI: 10.1016/s0966-842x(97)85011-1
  • 24
    Hassett, D.E. & Whitton, J.L. (1996) DNA immunisation. Trends in Microbiology 4, 307312.DOI: 10.1016/0966-842x(96)10048-2
  • 25
    Iancono-Connors, L.C., Schmaljohn, C.S., Dalrymple, J.W. (1990) Expression of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen by Baculovirus and Vaccinia virus recombinants. Infection and Immunity 58, 366372.
  • 26
    Ivins, B.E. & Welkos, S.L. (1986) Cloning and expression of the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene in Bacillus subtilis. Infection and Immunity 54, 537542.
  • 27
    Ivins, B.E., Pitt, M.L.M., Fellows, P.F., Farchaus, J.W., Benner, G.E., Waag, D.M., Little, S.F., Anderson, G.W., Gibbs, P.H., Friedlander, A.M. (1998) Comparative efficacy of experimental anthrax vaccine against inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques. Vaccine 16, 11411148.DOI: 10.1016/s0264-410x(98)00028-0
  • 28
    Keim, P., Kalif, A., Schupp, J., Hill, K., Travis, S.E., Richmond, K., Adair, D.M., Hugh-Jones, M., Kuske, C.R., Jackson, P. (1997) Molecular evolution and diversity in Bacillus anthracis as detected by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Journal of Bacteriology 3, 818824.
  • 29
    Keim, P., Price, L.B., Klevystka, A.M., Smith, K.L., Schupp, J.M., Okinaka, R., Jackson, P.J., Hugh-Jones, M.E. (2000) Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships with Bacillus anthracis. Journal of Bacteriology 182, 29282936.
  • 30
    Knop, A.G. & Abalakin, V.A. (1986) Anthrax (Siberian Plague). In Epidemic Process as a Socio-ecological System. Handbook of Scientific Works pp. 100–109. Moscow: Central Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology.
  • 31
    Lightfoot, N.F., Scott, R.J.D., Turnbull, P.C.B. (1990) Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax. 11–13 April, 1989, Winchester, UK. Salisbury Medical Bulletin 68, 9598.
  • 32
    Little, S.F. & Ivins, B.E. (1999) Molecular pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis infection. Microbes and Infection 2, 131139.
  • 33
    McBride, B.W., Moog, A., Telfer, J.L., Lever, M.S., Miller, J., Turnbull, P.C.B., Baillie, L.W.J. (1998) Protective efficacy of a recombinant antigen against Bacillus anthracis challenge and assessment of immunological markers. Vaccine 16, 810817.DOI: 10.1016/s0264-410x(97)00268-5
  • 34
    Miller, J., McBride, B.W., Manchee, R.J., Moore, P., Baillie, L.W.J. (1998) Production and purification of recombinant protective antigen and protective efficacy against Bacillus anthracis. Letters in Applied Microbiology 26, 5660.
  • 35
    Oh, H.-B., Park, Y.-M., Seong, W.-K. (1998) Expression and secretion of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in Bacillus brevis. Abstracts of the 3rd International Conference on Anthrax, 7–10 September, 1998.
  • 36
    Okinaka, R., Cloud, K., Hampton, O., Hill, K., Keim, P., Lamke, G., Kumano, S., Manter, D., Martinez, Y., Svensson, R., Tatum, L., Brown, A., Jackson, P. (1999) Sequence and organisation of pXO1, the large Bacillus anthracis plasmid harboring the anthrax toxin genes. Journal of Bacteriology 181, 65096515.
  • 37
    Okinaka, R.T. et al. (2000) Bacillus anthracis plasmid pXO2, complete sequence. Genbank Accession NC_002146,
  • 38
    Pellizzari, R., Guidi-Rontani, C., Vitale, G., Mock, M., Montecucco, C. (1999) Anthrax lethal factor cleaves MKK3 in macrophages and inhibits the LPS/IFNγ release of NO and TNFα. FEBS Letters 462, 199204.DOI: 10.1016/s0014-5793(99)01502-1
  • 39
    Petosa, C., Collier, R.J., Klimpel, K.R., Leppla, S.H., Liddington, R.C. (1997) Crystal structure of the anthrax toxin protective antigen. Nature 385, 833838.
  • 40
    Pugh, A.O. & Davies, J.C.A. (1990) Human anthrax in Zimbabwe. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Anthrax, 11–13 April, 1989, Winchester, UK. Salisbury Medical Bulletin 68, 3233.
  • 41
    Singh, Y., Leppla, S.H., Bhatnager, R., Friedlander, A.M. (1989) Internalisation and processing of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin by toxin-sensitive and -resistant cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 264, 1109911102.
  • 42
    Sterne, M. (1967) Distribution and economic importance of anthrax. Federation Proceedings 26, 14931495.
  • 43
    Turnbull, P.C.B. (1991) Anthrax vaccines: past, present and future. Vaccine 9, 533539.
  • 44
    Turnbull, P.C.B. (1996) Anthrax is alive and well. PHLS Microbiology Digest 9, 103106.
  • 45
    Turnbull, P.C.B. (1999) Definitive identification of Bacillus anthracis– a review. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2, 237240.
  • 46
    Turnbull, P.C.B. (2000) Current status of immunisation against anthrax: old vaccines may be here to stay for a while. Current Opinions in Infectious Disease 13, 113120.
  • 47
    Vodkin, M.H. & Leppla, S.H. (1983) Cloning of the protective antigen gene of Bacillus anthracis. Cell 34, 693697.
  • 48
    Williamson, E.D., Beedham, R.J., Bennett, A.M., Miller, J., Baillie, L.W.J. (1999) Presentation of protective antigen to the mouse immune system: immune sequelae. Journal of Applied Microbiology 87, 315317.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00901.x
  • 49
    Wu, X.-C., Lee, W., Tran, L., Wong, S.-L. (1991) Engineering a Bacillus subtilis expression-secretion system with a strain deficient in six extracellular proteases. Journal of Bacteriology 173, 49524958.
  • 50
    Zeger, N.D., Kluter, E., Van Der Stap, H., Van Dura, E., Van Dalen, P., Shaw, M., Baillie, L.W.J. (1999) Expression of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis by Lactobacillus casei: towards the development of an oral vaccine against anthrax. Journal of Applied Microbiology 87, 309314.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00900.x
  • 51
    Zilinska, R.A. (1997) Iraq’s biological weapons. Journal of the American Medical Association 278, 418424.