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Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize a bacterium capable of metabolizing endosulfan. Methods and Results: A endosulfan-degrading bacterium (strain ESD) was isolated from soil inoculum after repeated culture with the insecticide as the sole source of sulfur. Analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, and morphological and physiological characteristics revealed it to be a new fast-growing Mycobacterium, closely related to other Mycobacterium species with xenobiotic-degrading capabilities. Degradation of endosulfan by strain ESD involved both oxidative and sulfur-separation reactions. Strain ESD did not degrade endosulfan when sulfite, sulphate or methionine were present in the medium along with the insecticide. Partial degradation occurred when the culture was grown, with endosulfan, in the presence of MOPS (3-(N-morpholino)propane sulphonic acid), DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), cysteine or sulphonane and complete degradation occurred in the presence of gutathione. When both beta-endosulfan and low levels of sulphate were provided as the only sources of sulfur, biphasic exponential growth was observed with endosulfan metabolism being restricted to the latter phase of exponential growth. Conclusions: This study isolated a Mycobacterium strain (strain ESD) capable of metabolizing endosulfan by both oxidative and sulfur-separation reactions. The endosulfan-degrading reactions are a result of the sulfur-starvation response of this bacterium. Significance and Impact of the Study: This describes the isolation of a Mycobacterium strain capable of degrading the insecticide endosulfan. This bacterium is a valuable source of enzymes for use in enzymatic bioremediation of endosulfan residues.