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Keywords:

  • Area size;
  • birds;
  • endemism;
  • Levant;
  • mammals;
  • Tenebrionids

Co-occurrence of species of various geographical ranges is important to correct endemism evaluation. This co-occurrence is shown as non-hazardous. Influence of area size on species richness is assumed to be different with respect to endemic and non-endemic species. The territory of Israel and Sinai is subdivided into twenty biotic provinces. We segregated three hundred and twenty-five tenebrionid species inhabiting this territory into endemic, regional and ubiquitous species. Regression of the number of endemic species on the number of regional species is non-linear. Two distinct regression lines correspond to hot and cool areas. The number of ubiquitous species depends positively on numbers of both endemic and regional species, and negatively on their product. Ubiquitous species are predominantly synanthropic, and inability to tolerate competition with other tenebrionids is assumed as the basis of numerical relationships with other species. Correlation between numbers of endemic and non-endemic species of bird and mammal and size of area is analysed at the broad geographical scale. Relationships between area size evaluation and the numbers of endemic and non-endemic species are always different. The square root of the area km2 is always more important in species richness determination than area itself. This variable is a linear characteristic of the area and its significance is discussed. Possible ecological interactions between species of various geographical ranges are also considered. A new method of evaluation of the level of faunal endemism is proposed.