SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Anderson, P. M., Bartlein, P. J., Brubaker, L. B., Gajewski, K., Ritchie, J. C. (1989) Modern analogues of late-Quaternary pollen spectra from the western interior of North America. Journal of Biogeography, 16, 573 596.
  • 2
    Baker, R. G. (1965) Late-glacial pollen and plant macrofossils from Spider Creek, southern St. Louis County, Minnesota. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 76, 601 610.
  • 3
    Baker, R. G., Bettis, E. A., Schwert, D. P., Horton, D. G., Chumbley, C. A., Gonzalez, L. A., Reagan, M. K. (1996) Holocene paleoenvironments of northeast Iowa. Ecological Monographs, 66, 203 234.
  • 4
    Barnekow, L. (1999) Holocene tree dynamics in the Abisko area, northern Sweden, based on pollen and macrofossil records, and the inferred climatic changes. The Holocene, 9, 253 265.
  • 5
    Birks, H. H. (1993) The importance of plant macrofossils in late-glacial climatic reconstructions: an example from western Norway. Quaternary Science Reviews, 12, 719 726.
  • 6
    Birks, H. H. (1994a) Late-glacial vegetational ecotones and climatic patterns in western Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 3, 107 119.
  • 7
    Birks, H. H. (1994b) Plant macrofossils and the nunatak theory of per-glacial survival. Dissertationes Botanicae, 234, 129 143.
  • 8
    Birks, H. H., Battarbee, R. W., Birks, H. J. B. (2000) The development of the aquatic ecosystem at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway, during the late glacial and early Holocene—a synthesis. Journal of Paleolimnology, 23 (in press).
  • 9
    Birks, H. J. B. (1976) Late-Wisconsinan vegetational history at Wolf Creek, central Minnesota. Ecological Monographs, 46, 395 429.
  • 10
    Birks, H. J. B. (1993) Is the hypothesis of survival on glacial nunataks necessary to explain the present-day distribution of Norwegian mountain plants? Phytocoenologia, 23, 399 426.
  • 11
    Colinvaux, P. A. (1996) Low-down on a land bridge. Nature, 382, 21 22.
  • 12
    Cwynar, L. C. (1982) A late-Quaternary vegetation history from Hanging Lake, northern Yukon. Ecological Monographs, 52, 1 24.
  • 13
    Elias, S. A., Short, S. K., Nelson, C. H., Birks, H. H. (1996) Life and times of the Bering land bridge. Nature, 382, 60 63.
  • 14
    Elias, S. A., Short, S. K., Birks, H. H. (1997) Late Wisconsin environments of the Bering Land Bridge. Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 136, 293 308.
  • 15
    Guthrie, R. D. (1990) Frozen fauna of the mammoth steppe, 323 pp. Chicago University Press, Chicago.
  • 16
    Jackson, S. T. (1989) Postglacial vegetational changes along an elevational gradient in the Adirondack Mountains (New York). New York State Museum Bulletin, 465, 29 pp.
  • 17
    Jonsgard, B. & Birks, H. H. (1995) Late-glacial mosses and environmental reconstructions at Kråkenes, western Norway. Lindbergia, 20, 64 82.
  • 18
    Kristiansen, I. L., Mangerud, J., Lømo, L. (1988) Late-Weichselian/early Holocene pollen- and lithostratigraphy in lakes in the Ålesund area, western Norway. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 53, 185 231.
  • 19
    Larsen, E., Eide, F., Longva, O., Mangerud, J. (1984) Allerød-Younger Dryas climatic inferences from cirque glaciers and vegetational developments in the Nordfjord area, western Norway. Arctic and Alpine Research, 16, 137 160.
  • 20
    Mangerud, J. (1970) Late Weichselian vegetation and ice-front oscillations in the Bergen district, western Norway. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, 24, 121 148.
  • 21
    Overpeck, J. T., Webb, T., Prentice, I. C. (1985) Quantitative interpretation of fossil pollen spectra: dissimilarity coefficients and the method of modern analogs. Quaternary Research, 23, 87 108.
  • 22
    Paus, AA. (1989) Late Weichselian vegetation, climate and floral migration at Eigebakken, South Rogaland, southwestern Norway. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 61, 177 203.
  • 23
    Paus, AA. (1990) Late Weichselian and early Holocene vegetation, climate, and floral migration at Utsira, North Rogaland, southwestern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 70, 135 152.
  • 24
    Ritchie, J. C. (1995) Tansley Review no. 83. Current trends in studies of long-term plant community dynamics. New Phytologist, 130, 469 494.
  • 25
    Van Dinter, M. & Birks, H. H. (1996) Distinguishing fossil Betula nana and B. pubescens using their wingless fruits: implications for the late-glacial vegetational history of western Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 5, 229 240.
  • 26
    Von Post, L. (1916) Forest tree pollen in south Swedish peat bog deposits (translation by M. B. Davis and K. Fægri). Pollen Spores, 9, 375 401.
  • 27
    Watts, W. A. (1979) Late Quaternary vegetation of central Appalachia and the New Jersey coastal plain. Ecological Monographs, 49, 427 469.
  • 28
    Whitlock, C., Bartlein, P. J., Watts, W. A. (1993) Vegetation history of Elk Lake. Geological Society of America Special Paper, 276, 251 273.
  • 29
    Wick, L. & Tinner, W. (1997) Vegetation changes and timberline fluctuations in the central Alps as indicators of Holocene climatic oscillations. Arctic and Alpine Research, 29, 445 458.
  • 30
    Wolf, V. G. & Birks, H. H. (2000) Full-glacial upland tundra vegetation preserved under tephra in the Beringia National Park, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Quaternary Science Reviews, (in press).
  • 31
    Wright, H. E. Jr (1971) Late Quaternary vegetational history of North America. The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages (ed. K. K.Turekian), pp. 435 464. Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • 32
    Wright, H. E. Jr & Watts, W. A. (1969) Glacial and vegetational history of northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Geological Survey Special Publication Series, SP-11, 59 pp.