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The biogeographic regions reconsidered


Barry Cox Forge Cottage, Blacksmith Close, Ashtead, Surrey, KT21 2BD, UK. E-mail:



To evaluate the internal consistency and appropriateness of Takhtajan’s system of world-wide floral Kingdoms in the light of modern knowledge, and similarly to re-examine the Wallacean system of mammal biogeographic regions.

Main conclusions

It is suggested that Takhtajan’s Cape and Antarctic floral Kingdoms should be deleted, and their constituent parts allocated to the neighbouring Kingdoms. The mammal biogeographic regions are to be restricted to the continents, as defined by the edges of the continental shelves, and the name ‘Wallacea’ is accepted for the area between the Southeast Asian and Australian continental shelves. Modifications are suggested for the names of some of the floral Kingdoms and mammal biogeographic regions.

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