• Fossil beetles;
  • Nothofagus;
  • last glacial maximum;
  • Holocene;
  • vegetation history;
  • environmental reconstruction;
  • New Zealand


Aim  The research aim is to reconstruct last glacial maximum (LGM) and Holocene vegetation history and ecology from fossil beetle assemblages.

Location  The LGM and Holocene sites are located in the Awatere Valley, which lies in the tectonically active Marlborough Region in the north east of the South Island of New Zealand.

Methods  Beetle fossils were extracted from silty organic sediment using the standard kerosene flotation method. Fossils were identified by comparisons made to modern species based on morphology and surface features. The ecology and distribution of modern analogues are extrapolated to reconstruct the fossil environment.

Results  One hundred and forty-five beetle species belonging to 33 families were identified. The LGM fossil fauna showed the local vegetation was characterized by a forest patch surrounded by an open tussock/grassland landscape. This Nothofagus (southern beech) forest persisted at the site until mid-Holocene when it was replaced by a podocarp forest that contained high beetle diversity. Herbivores dominate in the early stage of this zone, indicating a relatively new forest environment. Later in the Holocene, the fauna is dominated by detritivores indicating an older more established forest. The late Holocene is characterized by low diversity and the absence of forest species. This fauna indicates that by 500 years ago, the forest was absent and is associated with an almost compete loss of beetle biodiversity.

Main conclusions  The fossil beetles provide a unique perspective into the past environment in the Awatere Valley on a local scale. The reconstruction supports regional pollen interpretations of Holocene vegetation by identifying a specific forest patch. Fossil beetles are thus a valuable local proxy for vegetation reconstructions.