SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ball C., Sackett D.L., Phillips B., Haynes B. & Straus S. (1998) Levels of Evidence and Grading Recommendations. Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, http://cebm.jr2.ox.ac.uk/index.extras.
  • Basche C.E. (1987) Focus groups interview: an underutilized research technique for improving theory and practice in health education. Health Quarterly 14, 411418.
  • Beaudin C.L. & Pelletier L.R. (1996) Consumer-based research: using focus groups as a method for evaluating quality of care. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 10, 2833.
  • Benson K. & Hartz A.J. (2000) A comparison of observational studies and randomised controlled trials. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 18781886.
  • Black N. (1996) Why we need observational studies to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare. British Medical Journal 312, 12151218.
  • Brewin C.R. & Bradley C. (1989) Patient preferences and randomised clinical trials. British Medical Journal 299, 313315.
  • Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. (1979) The periodic health examination. Canadian Medical Association Journal 121, 11931254.
  • Carruthers S.G., Larochelle P., Haynes R.B., Petrasovits A. & Schiffrin E.L. (1993) Report of the Canadian Hypertension Society consensus conference: 1. Introduction. Canadian Medical Association Journal 149, 289293.
  • Chalmers T.C., Celano P., Sacks H.S. & Smith H. (1983) Bias in treatment assignment in controlled clinical trials. New England Journal of Medicine 309, 13581361.
  • Colditz G.A., Miller J.N. & Mosteller F. (1989) How study design affects outcomes in comparisons of therapy. I: Medical. Statistics in Medicine 8, 441454.
  • Concato J., Shah N. & Horwitz R.I. (2000) Randomised controlled trials, observational studies and the hierarchy of research designs. New England Journal of Medicine 342, 18871892.
  • Cook D.J., Guyatt G.H., Laupacis A. & Sackett D.L. (1992) Rules of evidence and clinical recommendations on the use of antithrombotic agents. Chest 102, 305s311s.
  • Cook D.J., Guyatt G.H., Laupacis A., Sackett D.L. & Goldberg R.J. (1995) Clinical recommendations using levels of evidence for antithrombotic agents. Chest 108, 227s230s.
  • Cook D.J., Mulrow C.D. & Haynes B. (1998) Synthesis of best evidence for clinical decisions. In: Systematic Reviews: Synthesis of Best Evidence for Health Care Decisions (Eds MulrowC.D. & CookD.). American College of Physicians, Philadelphia.
  • Dawson-Saunders B. & Trapp R.G. (1994) Basic and Clinical Biostatistics. Prentice Hall International, London.
  • Elwood M. (1998) Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Feinstein A.R. (1989) Epidemiologic analysis of causation: the unlearned scientific lessons of randomised trials. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 42, 481489.
  • Guyatt G.H., Sackett D.L., Sinclair J.C., Hayward R., Cook D.J. & Cook R.J. (1995) Users guide to the medical literature: IX. A method for grading healthcare recommendations. JAMA 274, 18001804.
  • Guyatt G.H., Haynes R.B., Jaeschke R.Z., Cook D.J., Green L., Naylor C.D., Wilson M.C. & Richardson W.S. (2000) Users guide to the medical literature XXV. Evidence-based medicine: Principles for applying the users guides to patient care. JAMA 284, 12901296.
  • Horwitz R.I., Viscoli C.M., Clemens J.D. & Sadock R.T. (1990) Developing improved observational methods for evaluating therapeutic effectiveness. American Journal of Medicine 89, 630638.
  • McKee M., Britton A., Black N., McPherson K., Sanderson C. & Bain C. (1999) Interpreting the evidence: choosing between randomised and non-randomised studies. British Medical Journal 319, 312315.
  • Meltzer S., Leiter L., Daneman D., Gerstein H.C., Lau D., Ludwig S., Yale J., Zinman B. & Lillie D. (1998) 1998 clinical practice guidlines for the management of diabetes in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal 159, S1S29.
  • Meyer J. (2000) Using qualitative methods in health related action research. British Medical Journal 320, 178181.
  • Miller J.N., Colditz G.A. & Mosteller F. (1989) How study design affects outcomes in comparisons of therapy. II. Surgical. Statistics in Medicine 8, 455466.
  • Muir Gray J.A. (1997) Evidence-Based Healthcare. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
  • Mulrow C.D. (1987) The medical review article: state of the science. Annals of Internal Medicine 106, 485488.
  • Mulrow C.D. & Oxman A.D. (1997) Cochrane Collaboration Handbook (database on disk and CDROM). The Cochrane Library, The Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, Updated Software.
  • NHMRC (1995) Guidelines for the Development and Implementation of Clinical Guidelines, 1st edn. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (1996) Undertaking Systematic Reviews of Research on Effectiveness. CRD Guidelines for Those Carrying Out or Commissioning Reviews. University of York, York.
  • Robinson N. (1999) The use of focus group methodology: with selected examples from sexual health research. Journal of Advanced Nursing 29, 905913.
  • Sackett D.L. (1986) Rules of evidence and clinical recommendations on the use of antithrombotic agents. Chest 89, 2s3s.
  • Sackett D.L., Richardson W.S., Rosenberg W. & Haynes R.B. (1997) Evidence Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM. Churchill Livingstone, New York.
  • Van der Zalm J.E. (2000) Hermeneutic-phenomenology: providing living knowledge for nursing practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing 31, 211218.
  • Van Manen M. (1990) Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. State University of New York, London.
  • Wilson M.C., Hayward R.S.A., Tunis S.R., Bass E.B. & Guyatt G. (1995) Users guide to the medical literature. VIII. How to use clinical practice guidelines; B. What are the recommendations and will they help you in caring for your patients. JAMA 274, 16301632.
  • Woolf S.H., Battista R.N., Anderson G.M., Logan A.G. & Wang E. (1990) Assessing the clinical effectiveness of preventative maneuvers: analytic principles and systematic methods in reviewing evidence and developing clinical practice recommendations. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 43, 891905.