SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Astridge, K. 1996 Effect of microhabitat variation in peatlands on Picea mariana and Larix laricina Seedlings. MSc Thesis, Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • Bell, G., Lechowicz, M.J., Schoen, D.J. 1991 The ecology and genetics of fitness in forest plants. III. Environmental variance in natural populations of Impatiens pallida. Journal of Ecology, 79, 697713.
  • Boerner, R.E.J. & Koslowsky, S.D. 1989 Microsite variation in soil chemistry and nitrogen mineralization in a beech–maple forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 21, 795801.
  • Brand, D.G. & Magnussen, S. 1988 Asymmetric, two-sided competition in even-aged monocultures of red pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18, 901910.
  • Clyde, M.A. & Titus, S.T. 1987 A new computerized system for tree ring measurement and analysis. Forestry Chronicle, 63, 2327.
  • Collins, S.L. & Good, R.E. 1987 The seedling regeneration niche: habitat structure of tree seedlings in an oak–pine forest. Oikos, 48, 8998.
  • Crum, H. 1991A Focus on Peatlands and Peat Mosses. The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
  • Dang, Q.L. & Lieffers, V.J. 1989 Assessment of patterns of tree ring growth of black spruce following peatland drainage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 19, 924929.
  • Grootjans, A.P., Schipper, P.C., Van Der Windt, M.J. 1985 Influence of drainage on N-mineralization and vegetation response in wet meadows. Acta Oecologia Planta, 6, 403417.
  • Hartgerink, A.P. & Bazzaz, F.A. 1984 Seedling-scale environmental heterogeneity influences individual fitness and population structure. Ecology, 65, 198204.
  • Heikurainen, L. & Kuusela, K. 1962 Revival of the tree growth after drainage and its dependence on tree size and age. Metsantutki Muslaitoksen Julk, 55, 115.
  • Hillman, G.R. 1987Improving Wetlands for Forestry in Canada. Information Report NOR-X-288. Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • Hillman, G.R., Johnson, J.D., Takyi, S.K. 1990The Canada–Alberta Wetlands Drainage and Improvement for Forestry Program. Project £ 1413–1417–86. Canada–Alberta Forest Resource Development Agreement Report. Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • Jeglum, J.K. 1972 Boreal forest wetlands near Candle Lake, central Saskatchewan. Musk-Ox, 11, 4158.
  • Karlin, E.F. & Bliss, L.C. 1984 Variation in substrate chemistry along microtopographical and water-chemistry gradients in peatlands. Canadian Journal of Botany, 62, 142153.
  • Knox, R.G., Peet, R.K., Christensen, N.L. 1989 Population dynamics in loblolly pine stands: changes in skewness and size inequality. Ecology, 70, 11531166.
  • Kramer, P.J. & Kozlowski, T.T. 1979Physiology of Woody Plants. Academic Press Inc, Orlando, FL.
  • Kuuluvainen, T., Hokkanen, T.J., Jarvinen, E., Pukkala, T. 1993 Factors related to seedling growth in a boreal Scots pine stand: a spatial analysis of a vegetation–soil system. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23, 21012109.
  • Lechowicz, M.J. & Bell, G. 1991 The ecology and genetics of fitness in forest plants. II. Microspatial heterogeneity of the edaphic environment. Journal of Ecology, 79, 687696.
  • Lieffers, V.J. 1986 Stand structure, variability in growth and intraspecific competition in a peatland stand of black spruce (Picea mariana). Holarctic Ecology, 9, 5864.
  • Lieffers, V.J. 1988 Sphagnum and cellulose decomposition in drained and natural areas of an Alberta peatland. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 68, 755761.
  • Lieffers, V.J. & Rothwell, R.L. 1986 Effects of depth of water table and substrate temperature on root and top growth of Picea mariana and Larix laricina seedlings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 16, 12011206.
  • Lieffers, V.J. & Rothwell, R.L. 1987a Effects of drainage on substrate temperature and phenology of some trees and shrubs in Alberta peatland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17, 97104.
  • Lieffers, V.J. & Rothwell, R.L. 1987b Rooting of peatland black spruce and tamarack in relation to depth of water table. Canadian Journal of Botany, 65, 817821.
  • Macdonald, S.E. & Lieffers, V.J. 1990 Photosynthesis, water relations, and foliar nitrogen of Picea mariana and Larix laricina from drained and undrained peatlands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, 9951000.
  • Mannerkoski, H. 1985 Effect of water table fluctuation on the ecology of peat soil. Publishers of Dept. Of Peatland Forestry, University of of Helsinki, 7, 1190.
  • Messier, C. & Kimmins, J.P. 1992 Growth of western red cedar seedlings in relation to microtopography, forest floor nutrient status, and fireweed and salal on clear-cut sites in coastal British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 273278.
  • Minkkinen, K. & Laine, J. 1998 Effect of forest drainage on the peat bulk density of pine mires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28, 178186.
  • Morgenstern, E.K. 1978 Range-wide genetic variation of black spruce. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 8, 463473.
  • Neter, J., William, W., Kutner, M.H. 1985Applied Linear Statistical Models: Regression, Analysis of Variance, and Experimental Designs. Richard D. Irwin Inc., Homewood, IL.
  • Ohlson, M. & Zackrisson, O. 1992 Tree establishment and microhabitat relationships in north Swedish peatlands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 18691877.
  • Oswald, B.P. & Neuenschwander, L.F. 1993 Microsite variability and safe site description for western larch germination and establishment. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 120, 148156.
  • Park, Y.S. & Fowler, D. 1982 Effects of inbreeding and genetic variance in a natural population of tamarack in eastern Canada. Silvae Genetica, 31, 2126.
  • Payandeh, B. 1973 Analysis of a forest drainage experiment in northern Ontario. I. Growth analysis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 3, 387398.
  • Pessi, Y. 1958 On the influence of bog draining upon thermal conditions in the soil and in the air near the ground. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 24, 359374.
  • Richardson, J. 1981 Growth of natural tree seedlings on a fen following drainage and fertilization. Canadian Forest Service Research Notes, 1, 2224.
  • Rothwell, R.L. & Silins, U. 1990 Variability of Soil Temperature, Substrate Moisture Content, and Tree Growth on two Drained and Undrained Alberta Peatlands. Technical Report to Alberta Forest Service Research Branch. Alberta Environmental Protection. Edmonton, AB.
  • Rothwell, R.L., Silins, U., Hillman, G.R. 1996 The effects of drainage on substrate water content at several forested Alberta peatlands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26, 5362.
  • Ruel, J.C., Loustau, D., Pineau, M. 1988 Relations entre la microtopographie, les caracteristiques de la couverture morte et la repartition des essences dans une erabliere a Bouleau jaune. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18, 11961202.
  • Schwinning, A. & Weiner, J. 1998 Mechanisms determining the degree of size asymmetry in competition among plants. Oecologia, 113, 447455.
  • Stanek, W. 1968 A forest drainage experiment in northern Ontario. Pulp and Paper Magazine of Canada, 69 (18), 5862.
  • Stoll, P., Weiner, J., Schmid, B. 1994 Growth variation in a naturally established population of Pinus sylvestris. Ecology, 75, 660670.
  • Strong, W.L. & La Roi, G.H. 1983 Root-system morphology of common boreal forest trees in Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13, 11641173.
  • Swanson, E.L. & Rothwell, R.L. 1989 Substrate freeze–thaw in a drained Alberta fen. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 19, 10241029.
  • Toth, J. & Gillard, D. 1988 Experimental design and evaluation of a peatland drainage system for forestry by optimization of synthetic hydrographs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18, 353373.
  • Urban, S.T., Lieffers, V.J., Macdonald, S.E. 1994 Release in radial growth in the trunk and structural roots of white spruce as measured by dendrochronology. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, 15501556.
  • Vitt, D.H., Crum, H., Snider, J.A. 1975 The vertical zonation of sphagnum species in hummock–hollow complexes in northern Michigan. Michigan Botanist, 13, 190200.
  • Weiner, J. 1990 Asymmetric competition in plant populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 260264.
  • Weiner, J. & Thomas, S.C. 1986 Size variability and competition in plant monocultures. Oikos, 47, 211222.
  • Weiner, J. & Solbrig, O.T. 1984 The meaning and measurement of size hierarchies in plant populations. Oecologia, 61, 334336.
  • Yin, F. 1992 Variability in Drainage-Induced Response Growth and its Relation to Pre-Drainage Growth Rate of Peatland Black Spruce and Tamarack. MSc Thesis, Department of Forest Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • Zar, J.H. 1984Biostatistical Analysis. 2nd edn. Prentice Hall Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.