SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alonso, C. & Herrera, C.M. 1996 Variation in herbivory and among plants of Daphne laureola (Thymelaceae): correlation with plant size and architecture. Journal of Ecology, 84, 495502.
  • Brown, V.K., Gange, A.C., Evans, I.M., Stoo, A.L. 1987 The effect of insect herbivory on the growth and reproduction of two annual Vicia species at different stages in plant succession. Journal of Ecology, 75, 11731189.
  • Cain, M.L., Carson, W.P., Root, R.B. 1991 Long-term suppression of insect herbivores increases the production and growth of Solidago altissima rhizomes. Oecologia, 88, 251257.
  • Cook, R.E. 1985 Growth and development in clonal plant populations. Population Biology and Evolution of Clonal Organisms (eds J.Jackson, L.Buss & R.Cook), pp. 259296. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.
  • Crawley, M.J. 1983Herbivory. The Dynamics of Animal–Plant Interactions. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Crawley, M.J. 1985 Reduction of oak fecundity by low density herbivore populations. Nature, 314, 163164.
  • Crawley, M.J. 1997 Plant–herbivore dynamics. Plant Ecology (ed. M.J.Crawley), pp. 401474. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Daehler, C. & Strong, D.R. 1997 Reduced herbivore resistance in introduced smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) after a century of herbivory-free growth. Oecologia, 110, 99108.
  • Doak, D.F. 1991 The consequences of herbivory for dwarf fireweed: different time scales, different morphological scales. Ecology, 72, 13971407.
  • Doak, D.F. 1992 Lifetime impacts of herbivory for a perennial plant. Ecology, 73, 20862099.
  • Edwards, J. 1985 Effects of herbivory by moose on flower and fruit production of Aralia nudicaulis. Journal of Ecology, 73, 861868.
  • Ehrlén, J. 1995 Demography of the perennial herb Lathyrus vernus. I. Herbivory and individual performance. Journal of Ecology, 83, 287295.
  • Ehrlén, J. 1997 Risk of grazing and flower number in a perennial plant. Oikos, 80, 428434.
  • Ericson, L. 1977 The influence of voles and lemmings on the vegetation in a coniferous forest during a 4-year period in northern Sweden. Wahlenbergia, 4, 1114.
  • Ericson, L. & Wennström, A. 1997 The effect of herbivory on the interaction between the clonal plant Trientalis europaea and its smut fungus Urocystis trientalis. Oikos, 80, 107111.
  • Eriksson, O. 1988 Patterns of ramet survivorship in clonal fragments of the stoloniferous plant Potentilla anserina. Ecology, 69, 736740.
  • Eriksson, O. & Ehrlén, J. 1992 Seed and microsite limitation of recruitment in plant populations. Oecologia, 91, 360364.
  • Eriksson, O. & Jerling, L. 1990 Hierarchical selection and risk spreading in clonal plants. Clonal Growth in Clonal Plants: Regulation and Function (eds J.Van Groenendael & H.De Kroon), pp. 7994. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, the Netherlands.
  • Ernest, K.A. 1994 Resistance of creosote bush to mammalian herbivory: temporal consistency and browsing-induced changes. Ecology, 75, 16841692.
  • Grivlova, O.V. & Vahrameeva, M.G. 1990Biological Flora of the Moscow Region. Izdatelstvo, Moskoskogo Universteta, Moscow, Russia.
  • Harborne, J.B. 1997 Plant secondary metabolism. Plant Ecology (ed. M.J.Crawley), pp. 132155. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
  • Harper, J.L. 1977Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Hegnauer 1969Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Birkhäuser-Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Hiirsalmi, H. 1969 Trientalis europaea L. A study of the reproductive biology, ecology and variation in Finland. Annales Botanici Fennici, 6, 119173.
  • Hosmer, D.W. & Lemeshow, S. 1989Applied Logistic Regression. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, NY.
  • Hulme, P.E. 1994 Seedling herbivory in grassland: relative impact of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Journal of Ecology, 82, 873880.
  • Hutchings, M.J. 1997 The structure of plant populations. Plant Ecology. (ed. M.J.Crawley), pp. 325358. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
  • Idestam-Almquist, J. 1998 Waterfowl herbivory on Potamogeton pectinatus in the Baltic Sea. Oikos, 81, 323328.
  • Jerling, L. 1988a Clone dynamics population dynamics and vegetation pattern of Glaux maritima on a Baltic sea shore meadow. Vegetatio, 74, 171185.
  • Jerling, L. 1988b Population dynamics of Glaux maritima (L.) along a distributional cline. Vegetatio, 74, 161170.
  • Johansson, M.E. 1994 Life history differences between central and marginal populations of the clonal aquatic plant Ranunculus lingua: a reciprocal transplant experiment. Oikos, 70, 6572.
  • John, E. & Turkington, R. 1997 A 5-year study of the effects of nutrient availability and herbivory on two boreal forest herbs. Journal of Ecology, 85, 419430.
  • Jónsdóttir, I.S. & Callaghan, T.V. 1989 Localized defoliation stress and the movement of C-14 photoassimilates between tillers of Carex bigelowii. Oikos, 54, 211219.
  • Landsberg, J. & Ohmart, C. 1989 Levels of insect defoliation in forest: patterns and concepts. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 4, 96100.
  • Lindström, E.R., Andrén, H., Angelstam, P., Cederlund, G. et al. 1994 Disease reveals the predator: sarcoptic mange, red fox predation, and prey populations. Ecology, 75, 10421049.
  • Louda, S.M. 1984 Herbivore effect on stature, fruiting, and leaf dynamics on a native crucifer. Ecology, 65, 13791386.
  • Lubbers, A.E. & Lechowicz, M.J. 1989 Effects of leaf removal on reproduction vs. belowground storage in Trillium grandiflorum. Ecology, 70, 8596.
  • Marquis, R.J. 1992 A bite is a bite? Constraints on response to folivory in Piper arieianum (Piperaceae). Ecology, 73, 143152.
  • Meyer, G.A. 1993 A comparison of the impacts of leaf- and sap-feeding insects on growth and allocation of goldenrod. Ecology, 74, 11011116.
  • Meyer, A.H. & Schmid, B. 1999 Experimental demography of the old-field perennial Solidago altissima: the dynamics of the shoot population. Journal of Ecology, 87, 4254.
  • Mutikainen, P., Walls, M., Ojaha, A. 1993 Effects of simulated herbivory on tillering and reproduction in an annual ryegrass, Lolium remotum. Oecologia, 95, 5460.
  • Peterson, T. 1992 Mollusc herbivory. Meddelanden FraÅn Avdelning För Ekologi I Botaniska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet, 6, 150.
  • Piqueras, J. & Klimeš, L. 1998 Demography and modelling of clonal fragments in the pseudoannual plant Trientalis europaea L. Plant Ecology, 136, 213227.
  • Piqueras, J., Klimeš, L., Redbo-Torstensson, P. 1999 Modelling the morphological response to nutrient availability in the clonal plant Trientalis europaea L. Plant Ecology, in press.
  • Pitelka, L.F. & Ashmun, J.W. 1985 Physiology and integration in clonal plants. Population Biology and Evolution of Clonal Organisms (eds J.Jackson, L.Buss & R.Cook), pp. 339435. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
  • Root, R.B. 1996 Herbivore pressure on goldenrods (Solidago altissima): its variation and cumulative effects. Ecology, 77, 10741087.
  • Schmid, B., Puttick, G.M., Burgess, K.H., Bazzaz, F.A. 1988 Clonal integration and effects of simulated herbivory in old-field perennials. Oecologia, 75, 465471.
  • Statistica 1994 STATISTICA for the Macintosh (Vol. I). StatSoft Inc. Tulsa, OK.
  • Strauss, S.Y. 1988 Determining the effects of herbivory using naturally damaged plants. Ecology, 69, 16281630.
  • Tolvanen, A., Laine, K., Pakonen, T., Havas, P. 1995 Recovery of evergreen clonal dwarf shrub Vaccinum vitis-idaea after simulated microtine herbivory. Vegetatio, 116, 15.
  • Tolvanen, A., Laine, K., Pakonen, T., Saari, E., Havas, P. 1994 Responses to harvesting intensity in a clonal dwarf shrub, the bilberry (Vaccinum myrtillus L.). Vegetatio, 110, 163169.
  • Warming, E. 1918 Om Jorduløbere. Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskskabs Skrifter, 8, 296–378 (in Danish with English summary).
  • Young, T.P. 1985 Lobelia telekii herbivory, mortality, and size at reproduction: variation with growth rate. Ecology, 66, 18791883.