• Antonovics, J., Thrall, P.H., Jarosz, A.M., Stratton, D. (1994) Ecological genetics of metapopulations: the Silene–Ustilago plant–pathogen system . Ecological Genetics(ed. L.A.Real), pp. 146 170. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Augspurger, C.K. & Kelly, C.K. (1984) Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings: experimental studies of the effect of dispersal distance, seedling density and light conditions. Oecologia, 61, 211 217.
  • Burdon, J.J. (1997) The evolution of gene-for-gene interactions in natural pathosystems. The Gene-for-Gene Relationship in Plant–Parasite Interactions (eds I.R.Crute, E.B.Holub & J.J.Burdon), pp. 245 262. CAB International, Oxford, UK.
  • Burdon, J.J., Ericson, L., Müller, W.J. (1995) Temporal and spatial changes in a metapopulation of the rust pathogen Triphragmium ulmariae and its host, Filipendula ulmaria. Journal of Ecology, 83, 979 989.
  • Burdon, J.J., Wennström, A., Elmqvist, T., Kirby, G.C. (1996) The role of race specific resistance in natural plant populations. Oikos, 76, 411 416.
  • Carlsson, U. & Elmqvist, T. (1992) Epidemiology of anther-smut disease (Microbotryum violaceum) and numeric regulation of populations of Silene dioica. Oecologia, 90, 509 517.
  • Carlsson, U., Elmqvist, T., Wennström, A., Ericson, L. (1990) Infection by pathogens and population age of host plants. Journal of Ecology, 78, 1094 1105.
  • Diggle, P.J., Liang, K.-Y., Zeger, S.L. (1994) Analysis of Longitudinal Data. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Dobson, A.J. (1990) An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Frank, S.A. (1991) Ecological and genetic models of host–pathogen coevolution. Heredity, 67, 73 83.
  • Gandon, S., Capowiez, Y., Dubois, Y., Michalakis, Y., Olivieri, I. (1996) Local adaptation and gene-for-gene coevolution in a metapopulation model. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 263, 1003 1009.
  • Gilpin, M. & Hanski, I. (1991) Metapopulation Dynamics: Empirical and Theoretical Investigations. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Gjaerum, H.B. (1974) Nordens Rustsopper. Fungiflora, Oslo, Norway.
  • Gregory, P.H. (1968) Interpreting plant disease gradients. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 6, 189 212.
  • Hanski, I. & Gilpin, M. (1997) Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
  • James, W.C. (1971) An illustrated series of assessment keys for plant diseases, their preparation and usage. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 51, 39 65.
  • Jarosz, A.M. & Burdon, J.J. (1992) Host–pathogen interactions in natural populations of Linum marginale and Melampsora lini. III. Influence of pathogen epidemics on host survivorship and flower production. Oecologia, 89, 53 61.
  • Jennersten, O., Nilsson, S.G., Wästljung, U. (1983) Local plant populations as ecological islands: the infection of Viscaria vulgaris by the fungus Ustilago violacea. Oikos, 41, 391 395.
  • McCauley, D.E. (1991) Genetic consequences of local population extinction and recolonization. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 6, 5 8.
  • Pacala, S.W., Hassell, M.P., May, R.M. (1990) Host–parasitoid associations in patchy environments. Nature, 344, 150 153.
  • Paul, N.D. & Ayres, P.G. (1986) The impact of a pathogen (Puccinia lagenophorae Cooke) on populations of groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.) overwintering in the field. I. Mortality, vegetative growth and the development of size hierarchies. Journal of Ecology, 74, 1069 1084.
  • Thrall, P.H. & Antonovics, J. (1995) Theoretical and empirical studies of metapopulations: population and genetic dynamics of the Silene–Ustilago system. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73 (Supplement 1), S1249 S1258.
  • Thrall, P.H. & Burdon, J.J. (1997) Host–pathogen dynamics in a metapopulation context: the ecological and evolutionary consequences of being spatial. Journal of Ecology, 85, 743 753.
  • Thrall, P.H. & Burdon, J.J. (in press) The spatial scale of pathogen dispersal: consequences for disease dynamics and persistence. Evolutionary Ecological Research, in press.
  • Tutin, T.G., Heywood, V.H., Burges, N.A., Moore, D.M., Valentine, D.H., Walters, S.M., Webb, D.A. (1976) Flora Europaea, Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Wilson, M. & Henderson, D.M. (1966) British Rust Fungi. Cambridge University Press, London, UK.