SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aber, J.D., Melillo, J.M., Nadelhoffer, K.J., McClaugherty, C.A. & Pastor, J. (1985) Fine root turnover in forest ecosystems in relation to quantity and form of nitrogen availability: a comparison of two methods. Oecologia, 66, 317321.
  • Alphei, J., Bonkowski, M. & Scheu, S. (1996) Protozoa, Nematoda and Lumbricidae in the rhizosphere of Hordelymus europaeus (Poaceae): faunal interactions, response of microorganisms and effects on plant growth. Oecologia, 106, 111126.
  • Azam, F., Ashraf, M., Lohdi, A. & Sajjad, M.I. (1990) Availability of soil and fertilizer nitrogen to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) following rice-straw amendment. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 10, 134138.
  • Azam, F., Malik, K.A. & Sajjad, M.I. (1985) Transformations in soil and availability to plants of 15N applied as inorganic fertilizer and legume residues. Plant and Soil, 86, 313.
  • Bartholomew, W.V. (1965) Mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen in the decomposition of plant and animal residues. Soil Nitrogen (eds W.V.Bartholomew & F.E.Clark), pp. 285306. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, MI.
  • Bossio, D.A. & Scow, K.M. (1995) Effect of carbon and flooding on the metabolic diversity of microbial communities in soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61, 40434050.
  • Christensen, H., Griffiths, B.S. & Christensen, S. (1992) Bacterial incorporation of tritiated thymidine and populations of bacteriophagous fauna in the rhizosphere of wheat. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24, 703709.
  • Christensen, S., Rønn, R., Ekelund, F., Andersen, B., Damgaard, J., Friberg-Jensen, U., Jensen, L., Kiil, H., Larsen, B., Larsen, J., Riis, C., Thingsgaard, K., Thirup, C., Tom-Petersen, A. & Vesterdal, L. (1996) Soil respiration profiles and protozoan enumeration agree as microbial growth indicators. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28, 865868.DOI: 10.1016/0038-0717(96)00064-8
  • Einsmann, J.C., Jones, R.H., Pu, M. & Mitchell, R.J. (1999) Nutrient foraging traits in 10 co-occurring plant species of contrasting life forms. Journal of Ecology, 87, 609619.
  • Elliott, L.F., Cochran, V.L. & Papendick, R.I. (1981) Wheat residue and nitrogen placement effects on wheat growth in the greenhouse. Soil Science, 131, 4852.
  • Farley, R.A. & Fitter, A.H. (1999a) Temporal and spatial variation in soil resources in a deciduous woodland. Journal of Ecology, 87, 688696.
  • Farley, R.A. & Fitter, A.H. (1999b) The response of seven co-occurring woodland herbaceous perennials to localized nutrient-rich patches. Journal of Ecology, 87, 849859 .
  • Fitter, A.H. (1994) Architecture and biomass allocation as components of the plastic response of root systems to soil heterogeneity. Exploitation of Environmental Heterogeneity by Plants (eds M.M.Caldwell & R.W.Pearcy), pp. 305323. Academic Press, New York, NY.
  • Garland, J.L. & Mills, A.L. (1991) Classification and characterisation of heterotrophic microbial communities on the basis of patterns of community-level sole-carbon-source utilisation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57, 23512359.
  • Grayston, S.J., Wang, S., Campbell, C.D. & Edwards, A.C. (1998) Selective influence of plant species on microbial diversity in the rhizosphere. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30, 315321.DOI: 10.1016/s0038-0717(97)00133-8
  • Griffiths, B.S. (1989) Enhanced nitrification in the presence of bacteriophagous protozoa. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 21, 10451051.
  • Griffiths, B.S. (1994) Microbial-feeding nematodes and protozoa in soil: their effects on microbial activity and nitrogen mineralization in decomposition hotspots and the rhizosphere. Plant and Soil, 164, 2533.
  • Griffiths, B.S. & Ritz, K. (1988) A technique to extract, enumerate and measure protozoa from mineral soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 20, 163173.
  • Griffiths, B.S., Boag, B., Neilson, R. & Palmer, L. (1990) The use of colloidal silica to extract nematodes from small samples of soil or sediment. Nematologica, 36, 465473.
  • Griffiths, B.S., Van Vuuren, M.M.I. & Robinson, D. (1994) Microbial grazer populations in a 15N labelled organic residue and the uptake of residue-N by wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 3, 321325.
  • Hackett, C.A. & Griffiths, B.S. (1997) Statistical analysis of the time–course of Biolog substrate utilisation. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 30, 6369.DOI: 10.1016/s0167-7012(97)00045-6
  • Hendrick, R.L. & Pregitzer, K.S. (1992) The demography of fine roots in a northern hardwood forest. Ecology, 73, 10941104.
  • Hodge, A., Robinson, D., Griffiths, B.S. & Fitter, A.H. (1999a) Nitrogen capture by plants grown in N-rich organic patches of contrasting size and strength. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50, 12431252.
  • Hodge, A., Robinson, D., Griffiths, B.S. & Fitter, A.H. (1999b) Why plants bother: root proliferation results in increased nitrogen capture from an organic patch when two grasses compete. Plant, Cell and Environment, 22, 811820.
  • Hodge, A., Stewart, J., Robinson, D., Griffiths, B.S. & Fitter, A.H. (1998) Root proliferation, soil fauna and plant nitrogen capture from nutrient-rich patches in soil. New Phytologist, 139, 479494.
  • Hodge, A., Stewart, J., Robinson, D., Griffiths, B.S. & Fitter, A.H. (1999c) Plant, soil fauna and microbial responses to N-rich organic patches of contrasting temporal availability. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31, 15171530.DOI: 10.1016/s0038-0717(99)00070-x
  • Jackson, L.E., Schimel, J.P. & Firestone, M.K. (1989) Short-term partitioning of ammonium and nitrate between plants and microbes in an annual grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 21, 409415.
  • Jackson, R.B. & Caldwell, M.M. (1993) Geostatistical patterns of soil heterogeneity around individual perennial plants. Journal of Ecology, 81, 683692.
  • Jingguo, W. & Bakken, L.R. (1997) Competition for nitrogen during decomposition of plant residues in soil: effect of spatial placement of N-rich and N-poor plant residues. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 153162.DOI: 10.1016/s0038-0717(96)00291-x
  • Jones, D.L. & Darrah, P.R. (1992) Re-sorption of organic compounds by roots of Zea mays L. and its consequences in the rhizosphere. I. Re-sorption of 14C labelled glucose, mannose and citric acid. Plant and Soil, 143, 259266.
  • De Kroon, H. & Hutchings, M.J. (1995) Morphological plasticity in clonal plants: the foraging concept reconsidered. Journal of Ecology, 83, 113122.
  • Lipson, D.A. & Monson, R.K. (1998) Plant–microbe competition for soil amino acids in the alpine tundra: effects of freeze–thaw and dry–rewet events. Oecologia, 113, 406414.DOI: 10.1007/s004420050393
  • Lupwayi, N.Z., Rice, W.A. & Clayton, G.W. (1998) Soil microbial diversity and community structure under wheat as influenced by tillage and crop rotation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30, 17331742.DOI: 10.1016/s0038-0717(98)00025-x
  • Moorhead, D.L., Westerfield, M.M. & Zak, J.C. (1998) Plants retard litter decay in a nutrient-limited soil: a case of exploitative competition? Oecologia, 113, 530536.DOI: 10.1007/s004420050406
  • Müller, M.M. & Sundman, V. (1988) The fate of nitrogen (15N) released from different plant materials during decomposition under field conditions. Plant and Soil, 105, 133139.
  • Näsholm, T., Ekblad, A., Nordin, A., Giesler, R., Högberg, M. & Högberg, P. (1998) Boreal forest plants take up organic nitrogen. Nature, 392, 914916.
  • Page, F.C. (1967) Taxonomic criteria for Limax amoebae with descriptions of three new species of Hartmanella and three of Vahlkampfia. Journal of Protozoology, 14, 499521.
  • Payne, R.W., Lane, P.G.N., Digby, S.A., Harding, P.K., Leech, G.W., Morgan, A.D., Todd, R., Thompson, G., Tunnicliffe Wilson, S.J., Welham, P.P. & White, R.P. (1993) Genstat 5 Release 3 Reference Manual. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Pregitzer, K.S., Zak, D.R., Curtis, P.S., Kubiske, M.E., Teeri, J.A. & Vogel, C.S. (1995) Atmospheric CO2, soil nitrogen and turnover of fine roots. New Phytologist, 129, 579585.
  • Reinhold, L. & Kaplan, A. (1984) Membrane transport of sugars and amino acids. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 35, 4583.
  • Reynolds, H.L., Hungate, B.A., Chapin, F.S. III & D’Antonio, C.M. (1997) Soil heterogeneity and plant competition in an annual grassland. Ecology, 78, 20762090.
  • Robinson, D. (1994) The responses of plants to non-uniform supplies of nutrients. New Phytologist, 127, 635674.
  • Robinson, D. & Van Vuuren, M.M.I. (1998) Responses of wild plants to nutrient patches in relation to growth rate and life-form. Inherent Variation in Plant Growth. Physiological Mechanisms and Ecological Consequences (eds H.Lambers, H.Poorter & M.M.I.Van Vuuren), pp. 237257. Backhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands.
  • Robinson, D., Hodge, A., Griffiths, B.S. & Fitter, A.H. (1999) Plant root proliferation in nitrogen-rich patches confers competitive advantage. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) Series B, 266, 431435.
  • De Ruiter, P.C., Moore, J.C., Zwart, K.B., Bouwman, L.A., Hassink, J., Bloem, J., De Vos, J.A., Marinissen, J.C.Y., Didden, W.A.M., Lebbink, G. & Brussaard, L. (1993) Simulation of nitrogen mineralization in the below-ground food webs of two winter wheat fields. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 95106.
  • Schimel, J.P. & Chapin, F.S. III (1996) Tundra plant uptake of amino acid and NH4+ nitrogen in situ: plants compete well for amino acid N. Ecology, 77, 21422147.
  • Schimel, J.P., Jackson, L.E. & Firestone, M.K. (1989) Spatial and temporal effects on plant–microbial competition for inorganic nitrogen in a California annual grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 21, 10591066.
  • Seligman, N.G., Feigenbaum, S., Feinerman, D. & Benjamin, R.W. (1986) Uptake of nitrogen from high C-to-N ratio, 15N-labelled organic residues by spring wheat grown under semi-arid conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 18, 303307.
  • Sharma, S., Rangger, A. & Insam, H. (1998) Effects of decomposing maize litter on community level physiological profiles of soil bacteria. Microbial Ecology, 35, 301310.
  • Sparling, G.P., Cheshire, M.V. & Mundie, C.M. (1982) Effect of barley plants on the decomposition of 14C-labelled soil organic matter. Journal of Soil Science, 33, 89100.
  • SPSS (1996) SPSS 70 Advanced Statistics. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
  • Stark, J.M. (1994) Causes of soil nutrient heterogeneity at different scales. Exploitation of Environmental Heterogeneity by Plants (eds M.M.Caldwell & R.W.Pearcy), pp. 255284. Academic Press, New York, NY.
  • Stout, J.D. & Heal, O.W. (1967) Protozoa. Soil Biology (ed. F.Raw), pp. 149196. Academic Press, London, UK.
  • Ta, T.C. & Faris, M.A. (1990) Availability of N from 15N-labelled alfalfa residues to three succeeding barley crops under different field conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 22, 835838.
  • Verhagen, F.J.M., Hageman, P.E.J., Woldendorp, J.W. & Laanbroek, H.J. (1994) Competition for ammonium between nitrifying bacteria and plant roots in soil pots: effects of grazing by flagellates and fertilization. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26, 8996.
  • Verhagen, F.J.M., Laanbroek, H.J. & Woldendorp, J.W. (1995) Competition for ammonium between plant roots and nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria and the effects of protozoan grazing. Plant and Soil, 170, 241250.
  • Van Vuuren, M.M.I., Robinson, D. & Griffiths, B.S. (1996) Nutrient inflow and root proliferation during the exploitation of a temporally and spatially discrete source of nitrogen in soil. Plant and Soil, 178, 185192.
  • Yaacob, O. & Blair, G.J. (1980) Mineralization of 15N-labelled legume residues in soils with different nitrogen contents and its uptake by Rhodes grass. Plant and Soil, 57, 237248.