SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Beuker, E. (1994) Adaptation to climatic changes of the timing of bud burst in populations of Pinus sylvestris L. & Picea abies (L.) Karst. Tree Physiology, 14, 961970.
  • 2
    Billington, H.L. & Pelham, J. (1991) Genetic variation in the date of budburst in Scottish birch population: implications for climate change. Functional Ecology, 5, 403409.
  • 3
    Birks, H.J.B. (1980) Modern pollen assemblages and vegetational history of the moraines of the Klutlan glacier and its surroundings Yukon territory, Canada. Quaternary Science Research, 14, 101129.
  • 4
    Bousquet, J., Cheliak, W.M. & Lalonde, M. (1987) Allozyme variability in natural populations of green alder (Alnus crispa) in Quebec. Genome, 29, 345352.
  • 5
    Bousquet, J., Cheliak, W.M. & Lalonde, M. (1987) Genetic diversity within and among 11 juvenile populations of green alder (Alnus crispa) in Canada. Physiologia Plantarum, 70, 311318.
  • 6
    Campbell, R.K. (1974) Use of phenology for examining provenance transfers in reforestation of Douglas-fir. Journal of Applied Ecology, 11, 10691180.
  • 7
    Cannell, M.G.R. & Smith, R.I. (1983) Thermal time, chill days and prediction of budburst in Picea sitchensis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 951963.
  • 8
    Cannell, M.G.R. & Smith, R.I. (1986) Climatic warming, spring budburst and frost damage on trees. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23, 177191.
  • 9
    Cannell, M.G.R. (1989) Chilling, thermal time and the dates of flowering of trees. In: Manipulation of Fruiting (ed. C.J.Wright), pp. 99113. Butterworth, London.
  • 10
    Chabot, B.F. & Hicks, D. (1982) The ecology of leaf life spans. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 13, 229259.
  • 11
    Chmielewski, F.M. & Puske, K. (1998) Information of the IPG Working Group: phenological observations in 1995, results of the IPG 1959–93. Arboreta Phaenologica, 41, 135.
  • 12
    Chmielewski, F.M. (1996) The International Phenological Gardens across Europe. Present state and perspectives. Phenology and Seasonality Modelling, 1, 1923.
  • 13
    Chuine, I., Cour, P. & Rousseau, D.D. (1998) Fitting models predicting dates of flowering of temperate-zone trees using simulated annealing. Plant, Cell & Environment, 21, 455466.
  • 14
    Chuine, I., Cour, P. & Rousseau, D.D. (1999) Selecting models to predict the timing of flowering of temperate trees: implication for tree phenology modelling. Plant, Cell & Environment, 22, 113.
  • 15
    Chuine, I. & Cour, P. (1999) Climatic determinants of budburst seasonality in four temperate-zone tree species. New Phytologist, 143, 339349.
  • 16
    Cour, P. (1974) Nouvelles techniques de détection des flux et des retombées polliniques. Etude de la sédimentation des pollens et des spores à la surface du sol. Pollen et Spores, 16, 103141.
  • 17
    Delcourt, H.R. & Delcourt, P.A. (1991) Quaternary Ecology: a Paleoecological Perspective. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • 18
    Ducousso, A., Guyon, J. & Krémer, A. (1996) Latitudinal and altitudinal variation of bud burst in western populations of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl). Annual Science of Forest, 53, 775782.
  • 19
    El-Kassaby, Y.A. & Park, Y.S. (1993) Genetic variation and correlation in growth, biomass and phenology of Douglas-fir diallel progeny at different spacings. Silvae Genetica, 42, 289297.
  • 20
    El-Kassaby, Y.A., Fashler, A.M.K. & Sziklai, O. (1984) Reproductive phenology and its impact on genetically improved seed production in a Douglas-fir seed orchard. Silvae Genetica, 3, 120125.
  • 21
    Faegri, K. & Iversen, J. (1989) Textbook of Pollen Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, London.
  • 22
    Falusi, M. & Calamassi, R. (1996) Geographic and bud dormancy in beech seedlings (Fagus sylvatica L). Annales Des Sciences Forestières, 53, 967979.
  • 23
    Farmer, R.E. (1993) Latitudinal variation in height and phenology of Balsam Poplar. Silvae Genetica, 42, 148152.
  • 24
    Hänninen, H. (1990) Modelling bud dormancy release in trees from cool and temperate regions. Acta Forestalia Fennica, 213, 147.
  • 25
    Hänninen, H. (1996) Effects of climatic warming on northern trees: testing the frost damage hypothesis with meteorological data from provenance transfer experiments. Scandinavian Journal of Forestry Research, 11, 1725.
  • 26
    Hänninen, H., Kellomäki, S., Laitinen, K., Pajari, B. & Repo, T. (1993) Effect of increased winter temperature on the onset of height growth of Scots pine: a field test of a phenological model. Silva Fennica, 27, 251257.
  • 27
    Hunter, A.F. & Lechowicz, M.J. (1992) Predicting the timing of budburst in temperate trees. Journal of Applied Ecology, 29, 597604.
  • 28
    Huntley, B. & Birks, H.J.B. (1983) An Atlas of Past and Present Pollen Maps for Europe: 0–13000 Years Ago. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • 29
    Kikuzawa, K. (1989) Ecology and evolution of phenological pattern, leaf longevity and leaf habit. Evolutionary Trends in Plants, 3, 105110.
  • 30
    Kramer, K. & Mohren, G.M.J. (1996) Sensitivity of FORGRO to climatic change scenarios: a case study on Betula pubescens, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur in the Netherlands. Climatic Change, 34, 231237.
  • 31
    Kramer, K. (1994a) A modelling analysis of the effects of climatic warming on the probability of spring frost damage to tree species in the Netherlands and Germany. Plant, Cell & Environment, 17, 367377.
  • 32
    Kramer, K. (1994b) Selecting a model to predict the onset of growth of Fagus sylvatica. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31, 172181.
  • 33
    Kramer, K. (1995) Phenotypic plasticity of the phenology of seven European tree species in relation to climatic warming. Plant, Cell & Environment, 18, 93104.
  • 34
    Kramer, K., Friend, A. & Leinonen, I. (1996) Modelling comparison to evaluate the importance of phenology and spring frost damage for the effects of climate change on growth of mixed temperate-zone deciduous forests. Climate Research, 7, 3141.
  • 35
    Kuser, J.E. & Ching, K.K. (1980) Provenance variation in phenology and cold hardiness of Western Hemlock seedlings. Forest Science, 26, 463470.
  • 36
    Lechowicz, M.J. (1984) Why do temperature deciduous trees leaf out at different times? Adaptation and ecology of forest communities. American Naturalist, 124, 821842.
  • 37
    Li, P., Beaulieu, J. & Bousquet, J. (1997a) Genetic structure and patterns of genetic variation among populations in eastern white spruce (Picea glauca). Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 189198.
  • 38
    Li, P., Beaulieu, J., Corriveau, A. & Bousquet, J. (1993) Genetic variation in juvenile growth and phenology in a white spruce provenance-progeny test. Silvae Genetica, 42, 5260.
  • 39
    Li, P., Beaulieu, J., Daoust, G. & Plourde, A. (1997b) Patterns of adaptive genetic variation in eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) from Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 199206.
  • 40
    Lieth, H. (1974) Phenology and Seasonality Modelling. Springer Verlag, New York.
  • 41
    Matyas, C. (1994) Modeling climate change effects with provenance test data. Tree Physiology, 14, 797804.
  • 42
    Mergen, F. (1963) Ecotypic variation in Pinus strobus L. Ecology, 44, 716727.
  • 43
    Murray, M.B., Cannell, M.G.R. & Smith, R.I. (1989) Date of budburst of fifteen tree species in Britain following climatic warming. Journal of Applied Ecology, 26, 693700.
  • 44
    Murray, M.B., Smith, R.I., Leith, I.D., Fowler, D., Lee, H.S.J., Friend, A.D. & Jarvis, P.G. (1994) Effects of elevated CO2, nutrition and climatic warming on bud phenology in Sitka (Picea sitchensis) and their impact on the risk of frost damage. Tree Physiology, 14, 691706.
  • 45
    Perry, T.O. & Wang, L.W. (1960) Genetic variation in the winter chilling requirement for date of dormancy break for Acer rubrum. Ecology, 41, 790794.
  • 46
    Phillips, M.A. & Brown, A.H.D. (1977) Mating system and hybridity in Eucalyptus pauciflora. Autralian Journal of Biological Science, 30, 337344.
  • 47
    Prentice, I.C., Sykes, M.T. & Cramer, W. (1991) The possible dynamic response of northern forests to global warming. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 1, 129135.
  • 48
    Reich, P.B., Walters, M.B. & Ellsworth, D.S. (1992) Leaf life-span in relation to leaf, plant, and stand characteristics among diverse ecosystems. Ecological Monographs, 62, 365392.
  • 49
    Ricaud, S., Alaoui-Sossé, B., Crabbé, J. & Barnola, B. (1995) Dormance et croissance des bourgeons du platane hybride (Platanus acerifolia) en miliaeu urbain. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73, 130140.
  • 50
    Sarvas, R. (1974) Investigations on the annual cycle of development of forest trees: autumn dormancy and winter dormancy. Communicationes Instituti Forestalis Fenniae, 84, 1101.
  • 51
    Schnelle, F. & Volkert, E. (1974) International phenological gardens in Europe: the basic network for international phenological observations. Phenology and Seasonality Modelling (ed. H.Lieth), pp. 383387. Springer Verlag, New York.
  • 52
    Suszka, B., Muller, C. & Bonnet-Masimbert, M. (1994) Graines des Feuillus Forestiers de la Récolte au Semis. INRA, Paris.
  • 53
    Van Niejenhuis, A. & Parker, W.H. (1996) Adaptive variation in jack pine from north central determined by short-term common garden tests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26, 20062014.
  • 54
    Von Wuehlisch, G., Krusche, D. & Muhs, H.-J. (1995) Variation in temperature sum requirement for flushing of beech provenances. Silvae Genetica, 44, 343350.