SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Archer, S., Scifres, C. & Bassham, C.R. (1988) Autogenic succession in a subtropical savanna: conversion of grassland to thorn woodland. Ecological Monographs, 58, 111127.
  • 2
    Berendse, F., Schmitz, M. & Devisser, W. (1994) Experimental manipulation of succession in heathland ecosystems. Oecologia, 100, 3844.
  • 3
    Burke, M.J.W. & Grime, J.P. (1996) An experimental study of plant community invasibility. Ecology, 77, 776790.
  • 4
    Burgess, T.L., Bowers, J.E. & Turner, R.M. (1991) Exotic plants of the desert laboratory, Tucson, Arizona. Madroño, 38, 96114.
  • 5
    Case, T.J. (1990) Invasion resistance arises in strongly interacting species-rich model competition communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 87, 96109614.
  • 6
    Crawley, M.J. (1987) What makes a community invasible? Colonization, Succession, and Stability (eds A.J.Gray, M.J.Crawley & P.J.Edwards), pp. 429453. Blackwell Scientific, London.
  • 7
    D’Antonio, C.M. (1993) Mechanisms controlling invasions of coastal plant communities by the alien succulent, Carpobrotus edulis. Ecology, 74, 8395.
  • 8
    Davis, M.A., Wrage, K.J. & Reich, P.B. (1998) Competition between tree seedlings and herbaceous vegetation: support for a theory of resource supply and demand. Journal of Ecology, 86, 652661.
  • 9
    Davis, M.A., Wrage, K.J., Reich, P.B., Tjoelker, M.G., Schaeffer, T. & Muermann, C. (1999) Survival, growth, and photosynthesis of tree seedlings competing with herbaceous vegetation along a water-light-nitrogen gradient. Plant Ecology, 145, 341350.
  • 10
    Dukes, J.S. & Mooney, H.A. (1999) Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 14, 135139.
  • 11
    Dunnett, N.P., Willis, A.J., Hunt, R. & Grime, J.P. (1998) A 38-year study of relations between weather and vegetation dynamics in road verges near Bibury, Gloucestershire. Journal of Ecology, 86, 610623.
  • 12
    Elton, C.S. (1958). The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. Methuen, London, UK.
  • 13
    Goldberg, D.E., Rajaniemi, T., Gurevitch, J. & Stewart-Oaten, A. (1999) Empirical approaches to quantifying interaction intensity: competition and facilitation along productivity gradients. Ecology, 80, 11181131.
  • 14
    Grime, J.P. (1974) Vegetation classification by reference to strategies. Nature, 250, 26231.
  • 15
    Grime, J.P. (1988) The C-S-R model of primary plant strategies: origins, implications, and tests. Plant Evolutionary Biology (eds L.D.Gottlieb & S.K.Jain), pp. 371393. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • 16
    Grime, J.P. & Curtis, A.V. (1976) The interaction of drought and mineral nutrient stress in calcareous grassland. Journal of Ecology, 64, 97698.
  • 17
    Harrington, G.N. (1991) Effects of soil moisture on shrub seedling survival in a semi-arid grassland. Ecology, 72, 11381149.
  • 18
    Harrison, S. (1999) Native and alien species diversity at the local and regional scales in a grazed California grassland. Oecologia, 121, 99106.
  • 19
    Hobbs, R.J. (1989) The nature and effects of disturbance relative to invasions. Biological Invasion: a Global Perspective (eds J.A.Drake, F.Di Castri, R.H.Groves & F.J.Kruger), pp. 389405. Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 20
    Hobbs, R.J. & Atkins, L. (1988) Effect of disturbance and nutrient addition on native and introduced annuals in plant communities in the Western Australia wheatbelt. Australian Journal of Ecology, 13, 171179.
  • 21
    Hobbs, R.J. & Mooney, H.A. (1985) Community and population dynamics of serpentine grassland annuals in relation to gopher disturbance. Oecologia, 67, 342351.
  • 22
    Hobbs, R.J. & Mooney, H.A. (1991) Effects of rainfall variability and gopher disturbance on serpentine annual grassland dynamics. Ecology, 72, 5968.
  • 23
    Huenneke, L.F., Hamburg, S.P., Koide, R., Mooney, H.A. & Vitousek, P.M. (1990) Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology, 71, 478491.
  • 24
    Huston, M.A. (1994). Biological Diversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • 25
    Huston, M.A. & DeAngelis, D.L. (1994) Competition and coexistence: the effects of resource transport and supply rates. American Naturalist, 144, 954977.
  • 26
    Idso, S.B. (1992) Shrubland expansion in the American southwest. Climate Change, 22, 8586.
  • 27
    Janssens, F., Peeters, A., Tallowin, J.R.B., Bakker, J.P., Bekker, R.M., Fillat, F. & Oomes, M.J.M. (1998) Relationship between soil chemical factors and grassland diversity. Plant and Soil, 202, 6978.
  • 28
    Johnson, H.B., Polley, H.W. & Mayeux, H.S. (1993) Increasing CO2 and plant–plant interactions: effects on natural vegetation. Vegetatio, 104–105, 157170.
  • 29
    Johnstone, I.M. (1986) Plant invasion windows: a time-based classification of invasion potential. Biological Review, 61, 369394.
  • 30
    Li, X. & Wilson, S.D. (1998) Facilitation among woody plants establishing in an old field. Ecology, 79, 26942705.
  • 31
    Lodge, D.M. (1993) Biological invasions: lessons from ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8, 133136.
  • 32
    Lonsdale, W.M. (1999) Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invasibility. Ecology, 80, 15221536.
  • 33
    Maron, J.L. & Connors, P.G. (1996) A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion. Oecologia, 105, 302312.
  • 34
    Marler, M.J., Zabinski, C.A. & Callaway, R.M. (1999) Mychorrizae indirectly enhance competitive effects of invasive forb on a native bunchgrass. Ecology, 80, 11801186.
  • 35
    Myster, R.W. (1993) Tree invasion and establishment in old fields at Hutcheson Memorial Forest.. The Botanical Review, 59, 251572.
  • 36
    Olff, H. & Ritchie, M.E. (1998) Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 261265.
  • 37
    Parker, I.M. & Reichard, S.H. (1998) Critical issues in invasion biology for conservation science. Conservation Biology for the Coming Decade. 2nd edn (eds P.L.Fiedler & P.M.Kareiva), pp. 283305. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • 38
    Pimental, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R. & Morrison, D. (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. Bioscience, 50, 5365.
  • 39
    Prince, S.D., Carter, R.N. & Dancy, K.J. (1985) The geographical distribution of prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola). II. Characteristics of populations near its distribution limit in Britain. Journal of Ecology, 73, 3948.
  • 40
    Proulx, M. & Mazumder, A. (1998) Reversal of grazing impact on plant species richness in nutrient-poor vs nutrient-rich ecosystems. Ecology, 79, 25812592.
  • 41
    Rejmánek, M. (1989) Invasibility of plant communities. Ecology of Biological Invasion: a Global Perspective (eds J.A.Drake, F.Di Castri, R.H.Groves, F.J.Kruger, H.A.Mooney, M.Rejmanek & M.H.Williamson), pp. 369388. Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • 42
    Stohlgren, T.J., Binkley, D., Chong, G.W., Kalkhan, M.A., Schell, L.D., Bull, K.A., Otsuki, Y., Newman, G., Bashkin, M. & Son, Y. (1999) Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity. Ecological Monographs, 69, 2546.
  • 43
    Thompson, J.D. (1991) The biology of an invasive plant. Bioscience, 41, 393401.
  • 44
    Thompson, K., Hodgson, J.G. & Rich, T.C.G. (1995) Native and alien invasive plants: more of the same? Ecography, 18, 390402.
  • 45
    Tilman, D. (1997) Community invasibility, recruitment limitation, and grassland biodiversity. Ecology, 78, 8192.
  • 46
    Walker, B.H., Ludwig, D., Holling, C.S. & Peterman, R.M. (1981) Stability of semi-arid savanna grazing systems. Journal of Ecology, 69, 473498.
  • 47
    Wedin, D.A. & Tilman, D. (1996) Influence of nitrogen loading and species composition on the carbon balance of grasslands. Science, 274, 17201723.
  • 48
    Vitousek, P.M., D’Antonio, C.M., Loope, L.L. & Westbrooks, R. (1996) Biological invasions as global environmental change. American Scientist, 84, 468478.
  • 49
    Williamson, M. (1996). Biological Invasions. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • 50
    Williamson, M. (1999) Invasions. Ecography, 22, 512.