SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bergelson, J. (1990) Life after death – site pre-emption by the remains of Poa annua. Ecology, 71, 21572165.
  • Bourlière, F., Minner, E., Vuattoux, R. (1972) Les grands mammifères de la région de Lamto, Côte d’Ivoire. Mammalia, 38, 433447.
  • Caswell, H. (1989) Matrix Population Models: Construction, Analysis, and Interpretation. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • De Jong, T.G. & Klinkhamer, P.G.L. (1989) Size dependency of sex allocation in hermaphroditic, monocarpic plants. Functional Ecology, 3, 201206.
  • Durand, J., Garnier, L., Dajoz, I., Mousset, S., Veuille, M. (2000) Gene flow in a facultative apomict Poaceae, the savanna grass Hyparrhenia diplandra. Genetics, 156, 823831.
  • Facelli, J.M & Pickett, S.T.A. (1991) Plant litter: light interception and effects on an old-field plant community. Ecology, 72, 10241031.
  • Facelli, J.M. (1994) Multiple indirect effects of plant litter affect the establishment of woody seedlings in old fields. Ecology, 75, 17271735.
  • Ferrière, R., Sarrazin, F., Legendre, S., Baron, J.P. (1996) Matrix population models applied to viability analysis and conservation: theory and practice using the ULM software. Acta Oecologica, 17, 629656.
  • Frost, P.G.H. & Robertson, F. (1985) The ecological effects of fire in savannas. Determinants of Tropical Savannas: Presentations Made by Savanna Researchers at a Workshop in Harare, Zimbabwe, December 1985. International Council of Scientific Unions, Miami.
  • Garnier, L.K.M. & Dajoz, I., (in press) Evolutionary significance of awn length variation in a clonal grass of fire-prone savannas. Ecology, in press.
  • Gignoux, J., Clobert, J., Menaut, J.-C. (1997) Alternative fire resistance strategies in savanna trees. Oecologia, 110, 576583.DOI: 10.1007/s004420050198
  • Gillon, D. (1983) The fire problem in tropical savannas. Tropical Savannas (ed. F.Bourlière), pp. 617641. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Glemin, S. (1997) Mise au Point d’une Méthode de Recensement de Grands Herbivores dans une Savane de Type Mosaïque. Magistère BMC, Paris.
  • Hassan, M.A. & West, N.E. (1986) Dynamics of soil seed pools in burned and unburned sagesbrush semi-deserts. Ecology, 67, 269272.
  • Hochberg, M.E., Menaut, J.-C., Gignoux, J. (1994) The influences of tree biology and fire in the spatial structure of the West African savannah. Journal of Ecology, 82, 217226.
  • Hoffman, W.A. (1996) The effects of fire and cover on seedling establisment in a neotropical savanna. Journal of Ecology, 84, 383393.
  • Jacques-Félix, J. (1962) Les Graminées d’Afrique Tropicale. I. Généralités, Classification, Description des Genres. Institut de Recherches Agronomiques Tropicales, Paris.
  • Jeltsch, F., Milton, S.J., Dean, W.R.J., Van Rooyen, N. (1996) Tree spacing and coexistence in semiarid savannas. Journal of Ecology, 84, 583595.
  • Jeltsch, F., Milton, S.J., Dean, W.R.J., Van Rooyen, N., Moloney, K.A. (1998) Modelling the impact of small-scale heterogeneities on tree-grass coexistence in semi-arid savannas. Journal of Ecology, 86, 780793.
  • Keeley, J.E. & Fotheringham, C.J. (1997) Trace gas emissions and smoke-induced seed germination. Science, 276, 12481250.DOI: 10.1126/science.276.5316.1248
  • Klinkhamer, P.G.L., De Jong, T.D., Meelis, E. (1987) Delay of flowering in the ‘biennial’Cirsium vulgare: size effects and devernalization. Oikos, 49, 303308.
  • Lamotte, M. (1982) Consumption and Decomposition in Tropical Grassland Ecosystem at Lamto, Ivory Coast. Ecology of Tropical Savannas (eds B.Huntly, and B.Walker), 415429. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
  • Lacey, E.P. (1986) Onset of reproduction in plants: size-versus age-dependency. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 1, 7275.
  • Legendre, S. & Clobert, J. (1995) ULM, a software for conservation and evolutionary biologists. Journal of Applied Statistics, 22, 817834.
  • Lotz, L.A.P. (1990) The relation between age and size at first flowering of Plantago major in various habitats. Journal of Ecology, 78, 757771.
  • Menaut, J. & César, J. (1979) Structure and primary productivity of Lamto’s savanna, Ivory Coast. Ecology, 60, 11971210.
  • Menaut, J.C. (1977) Evolution of plots protected from fires since 13 years in a Guinea savanna of Ivory Coast. Actas del IV Symposium Internacional de Ecologia Tropical, Panama, 1977, 541558.
  • Menaut, J.C., Gignoux, J., Prado, C., Clobert, J. (1990) Tree community dynamics in a savanna of the Côte-d’Ivoire: modelling the effects of fire and competition with grass and neighbours. Journal of Biogeography, 17, 471481.
  • Mott, J.J. & Andrew, M.H. (1985) The effect of fire on the population dynamics of native grasses in tropical savannas of north-west Australia. Proceedings of Ecological Society of Australia, 13, 231239.
  • O'Connor, T.G. (1993) The influence of rainfall and grazing on the demography of some African savanna grasses: a matrix modelling approach. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 119132.
  • O'Connor, T.G. (1994) Composition and population responses of an African savanna grassland to rainfall and grazing. Journal of Applied Ecology, 31, 155171.
  • Richards, S.A., Possingham, H.P., Tizard, J. (1999) Optimal fire management for maintaining community diversity. Ecological Applications, 9, 880892.
  • San José, J.J. & Farinas, M.R. (1983) Changes in tree density and species composition in a protected Trachypogon savanna, Venezuela. Ecology, 64, 447453.
  • SAS Institute (1996) SAS/STAT user’s guide. Version 612. SAS, Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.
  • Scholes, R.J. & Archer, S.R. (1997) Tree–grass interactions in savannas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, 517544.
  • Silva, J.F. & Castro, F. (1989) Fire, growth and survivorship in a Neotropical savanna grass (Andropogon semiberbis (Ness) Kunth) in Venezuela. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 5, 387400.
  • Silva, J.F., Raventos, J., Caswell, H. (1990) Fire and fire exclusion effects on the growth and survival of two savanna grasses. Acta Oecologica, 11, 783800.
  • Silva, J.F., Raventos, J., Caswell, H., Trevisan, M.C. (1991) Population responses to fire in a tropical savanna grass, Andropogon semiberbis: a matrix model approach. Journal of Ecology, 79, 345356.
  • Stearns, S.C. (1992) The Evolution of Life Histories. Oxford University Press, New-York.
  • Whelan, R.J. (1995) The Ecology of Fire. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Williams, G.C. (1957) Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution, 11, 398411.