SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Baur, B., Joshi, J., Schmid, B., Hänggi, A., Borcard, D., Stary, J., Pedroli-Christen, A., Thommen, H.G., Luka, H., Rusterholz, H.-P., Oggier, P., Ledergerber, S., Erhardt, A. (1996) Variation in the species richness of plants and diverse groups of invertebrates in three calcareous grasslands of the Swiss Jura mountains. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 103, 801833.
  • Bolger, D.T., Alberts, A.C., Soulé, M.E. (1991) Occurrence patterns of bird species in habitat fragments: sampling extinction, and nested species subsets. American Naturalist, 137, 155166.
  • Bucheli, E. & Leuchtmann, A. (1996) Evidence for genetic differentiation between choke-inducing and asymptomatic strains of the Epichloë grass endophyte from Brachypodium sylvaticum. Evolution, 50, 18791887.
  • Burdon, J.J. (1993) The structure of pathogen populations in natural plant communities. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 31, 305323.
  • Chung, K.-R. & Schardl, C.L. (1997) Sexual cycle and horizontal transmission of the grass symbiont, Epichloë typhina. Mycological Research, 101, 295301.DOI: 10.1017/S0953756296002602
  • Clay, K. & Brown, V.K. (1997) Infection of Holcus lanatus and H. mollis by Epichloë in experimental grasslands. Oikos, 79, 363370.
  • Cochran, W.G. & Cox, G.M. (1957) Experimental Design, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York, USA.
  • Cooper, J.P. (1952) Studies on growth and development in Lolium. III. Influence of season and latitude on ear emergence. Journal of Ecology, 40, 352379.
  • Cooper, J.P. (1958) The effect of temperature and photoperiod on inflorescence development in strains of timothy (Phleum spp.). Journal of the British Grasslands Society, 13, 8191.
  • Diffendorfer, J.E., Gaines, M.S., Holt, R.D. (1995) Habitat fragmentation and movements of three small mammals (Sigmodon, Microtus, and Peromyscus). Ecology, 76, 827839.
  • Elashoff, J.D. (1986) Analysis of Repeated Measures Designs. BMDP Statistical Software, Los Angeles, USA.
  • Ellenberg, H. (1988) Vegetation Ecology of Central Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Emecz, T.I. & Jones, D.G. (1970) Effect of gibberellic acid on inflorescence production in cocksfoot plants infected with choke disease (Epichloë typhina). Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55, 7782.
  • Frankel, O.H. & Soulé, M.E. (1981) Conservation and Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Gilpin, M.E. & Soulé, M.E. (1986) Minimum viable population sizes: processes of species extinctions. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity (ed. M.E.Soulé), pp. 1934. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Gonzalez, A., Lawton, J.H., Gilbert, F.S., Blackburn, T.M., Evans-Freke, I. (1998) Metapopulation dynamics, abundance, and distribution in a microecosystem. Science, 281, 20452047.
  • Groppe, K. & Boller, T. (1997) PCR assay based on a microsatellite-containing locus for detection and quantification of Epichloë endophytes in grass tissue. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63, 15431550.
  • Groppe, K., Sanders, I., Wiemken, A., Boller, T. (1995) A microsatellite marker for studying the ecology and diversity of fungal endophytes (Epichloë sp.) in grasses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61, 39433949.
  • Groppe, K., Steinger, T., Sanders, I., Schmid, B., Wiemken, A., Boller, T. (1999) Interaction between the endophytic fungus Epichloë bromicola and the grass Bromus erectus: effects of endophyte infection, fungal concentration and environment on grass growth and flowering. Molecular Ecology, 8, 18271835.
  • Hanski, I. (1994) Patch-occupancy dynamics in fragmented landscape. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9, 31135.
  • Harris, L.D. (1988) Edge effects and conservation of biotic diversity. Conservation Biology, 2, 330332.
  • Harrison, S. (1991) Local extinction in a metapopulation context: an empirical evaluation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 42, 7388.
  • Hector, A., Schmid, B., Beierkuhnlein, C. et al. (1999) Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science, 286, 11231127.DOI: 10.1126/science.286.5442.1123
  • Holmes, J.C. (1996) Parasites as threats to biodiversity in shrinking ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5, 975983.
  • Hubbard, C.E. (1984) Grasses. Penguin, London, UK.
  • Hurlbert, S.H. (1984) Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs, 54, 187211.
  • Kareiva, P. (1987) Habitat fragmentation and the stability of predator–prey interactions. Nature, 326, 388390.
  • Kareiva, P. & Wennergren, U. (1995) Connecting landscape patterns to ecosystem and population processes. Nature, 373, 299302.
  • Kirby, E.J.M. (1961) Host-parasite relations in the choke disease of grasses. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 44, 493503.
  • Kruess, A. & Tscharntke, T. (1994) Habitat fragmentation, species loss, and biological control. Science, 264, 15811584.
  • Leuchtmann, A. & Schardl, C.L. (1998) Mating compatibility and phylogenetic relationships among two new species of Epichloë and other congeneric European species. Mycological Research, 102, 11691182.DOI: 10.1017/S0953756298006236
  • Lord, J.M. & Norton, D.A. (1988) Scale and the spatial concept of fragmentation. Conservation Biology, 4, 197202.
  • Lovejoy, T.E., Bierregaard, R.O., Rylands, A.B., Malcom, J.R., Quintela, C.E., Harper, L.H., Brown, K.S., Powell, A.H., Powell, G.V.N., Schubart, H.O.R., Hays, M.B. (1986) Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity (ed. M.E.Soulé), pp. 257285. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Margules, C.R.G., Milkovits, A., Smith, G.T. (1994) Contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation on the scorpion Cercophonius squama and an amphipod. Ecology, 75, 20332042.
  • Matthies, D., Schmid, B., Schmid-Hempel, P. (1995) The importance of population processes for the maintenance of biological diversity. Gaia, 4, 199209.
  • McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J.A. (1989) Generalized Linear Models, 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, London, UK.
  • Murcia, C. (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 10, 5862.
  • Payne, R.W., Lane, P.W., Ainsley, A.E., Bicknell, K.E., Digby, P.G.N., Harding, S.A.P., Leech, K., Simpson, H.R., Todd, A.D., Verrier, P.J., White, R.P. (1987) GENSTAT 5 Reference Manual. Clarendon, Oxford, UK.
  • Pimm, S.L. (1998) The forest fragment classic. Nature, 393, 2324.DOI: 10.1038/29892
  • Quinn, J.F. & Hastings, A. (1987) Extinction in subdivided habitats. Conservation Biology, 1, 198208.
  • Robinson, G.R., Holt, R.D., Gaines, M.S., Hamburg, S.P., Johnson, M.L., Fitch, H.S., Martinko, E.A. (1992) Diverse and contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation. Science, 257, 524526.
  • Sackville Hamilton, N.R., Schmid, B., Harper, J.L. (1987) Life history concepts and the population biology of clonal organisms. Proceedings of the Royal Society London B, 232, 3557.
  • SAS (1989) JMPTM users guide. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA.
  • Saunders, D.A.R., Hobbs, J., Margules, C.R. (1991) Biological consequences of ecosystem fragmentation: a review. Conservation Biology, 5, 1832.
  • Schardl, C.L. (1996) Interactions of grasses with endophytic Epichloë species and hybrids. Plant–Microbe Interactions (eds G.Stacey & N.Kreen), pp. 107140. Chapman & Hall, New York, USA.
  • Schmid, B. (1990) Some ecological and evolutionary consequences of modular organization and clonal growth in plants. Evolutionary Trends in Plants, 4, 2534.
  • Shaffer, M.L. (1981) Minimum population sizes for species conservation. Bioscience, 31, 131134.
  • Simberloff, D. (1988) The contribution of population and community biology to conservation science. Annual Review of Ecological Systems, 19, 473511.
  • Simberloff, D. (1994) Habitat fragmentation and population extinction of birds. Ibis, (Suppl.) 137, 105111.
  • Soulé, M.E. (1986) Conservation Biology. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Stace, C. (1991) New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Sun, S., Clarke, B.B., Funk, C.R. (1990) Effect of fertilizer and fungicide applications on choke expression and endophyte transmission in chewings fescue. International Symposium on Acremonium/Grass Interactions (eds S.Quisenberry and K.Jost), pp. 6263. Louisiana Agricultural Experimental Research Station, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
  • Wennström, A. (1996) The distribution of Epichloë typhina in natural plant populations of the host Calamagrostis purpurea. Ecography, 19, 377381.
  • White, J.F. (1992) Endophyte–host associations in grasses. XVII. Ecological and physiological features characterizing Epichloë typhina and some anamorphic varieties in England. Mycologia, 84, 431441.
  • White, J.F., Breen, J.P., Morgan-Jones, G. (1991) Substrate utilization in selected Acremonium, Atkinsonella and Balansia species. Mycologia, 83, 601610.
  • White, J.F., Glenn, A.E., Chandler, K.F. (1993) Endophyte–host associations in grasses. XVIII. Moisture relations and insect herbivory of the emergent stromal leaf of Epichloë. Mycologia, 85, 195202.
  • Wiens, J.A. (1989) Spatial scaling in ecology. Functional Ecology, 3, 385397.
  • Wiens, J.A. (1994) Habitat fragmentation: island versus landscape perspectives on bird conservation. Ibis, (Suppl.) 137, 97104.
  • Wilcove, D.S., McLellan, C.H., Dobson, A.P. (1986) Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity (ed. M.E.Soulé), pp. 237256. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Zoller, H., Wagner, C., Frey, V. (1986) Nutzungsbedingte Veränderungen in Mesobromion-Halbtrockenrasen in der Region Basel: Vergleich 1950–80. Abhandlungen des Westfälischen Museums für Naturkunde, 48, 93107.