Toll-like receptors: their role in allergy and non-allergic inflammatory disease


Dr Ian Sabroe, Section of Functional Genomics, Division of Genomic Medicine, University of Sheffield, M Floor, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK. E-mail:


The human TLRs comprise an important and interesting group of receptors that regulate pathogen-related responses, and play as yet uncharacterized roles in the amplication of sterile inflammation. Signalling through these receptors, which are powerfully coupled in gene transcription processes, has powerful immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory effects. Exploitation of TLR signalling will probably lead to novel effective therapies for allergic disease, in the first instance through more efficient mechanisms of immunotherapy. The likelihood of adverse consequences of such treatments, though possible, may be minimized by use of conjugated vaccines.