Nutrient intakes of an adult Pakistani, European and African-Caribbean community in inner city Britain


Avni Vyas,
Clinical Epidemiology Unit,
University of Manchester Medical School,
Manchester M13-9PT,
Tel.: +44 (0)161 275 5211


Objectives  To report nutrient intakes for three different ethnic groups living in inner city Manchester and explore under-reporting in each group.

Design  Cross-sectional survey. All participants completed one of three food frequency questionnaires, specifically developed for each ethnic group, and took part in a larger international survey of risk factors for diabetes and hypertension.

Setting  Participants were drawn randomly from seven GP registers in inner city Manchester, UK.

Participants  Men and women aged 25–79 years, 86 European, 246 African-Caribbean origin and 84 Pakistani origin participants were included in the analysis.

Results  Body mass index was highest in the Pakistani women, 30.2 kg m−2. European participants had the highest reported energy intakes (EIs) for men and women (10.9 and 9.6 MJ, respectively). Pakistani men and women had the highest percentage of energy from fat (36.7 and 36.6%, respectively). Iron intakes were low in the African-Caribbean group and calcium intakes were low in the Pakistani group. Under-reporting [assessed as EI : basal metabolic rate (BMR) ratio <1.2] appeared to be high and occurred across all ethnic groups, with those apparently under-reporting having higher BMIs in all groups.

Conclusion  The data provide nutrient intake estimates in three different ethnic groups using a similar method. Limitations include under-reporting across all ethnic groups in a similar pattern with under-reporters having higher BMIs in all groups, as found elsewhere.