• 1
    Kleiger RE, Miller JP, Bigger JT Jr, Moss AJ. Decreased heart rate variability and its association with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1987; 59: 256 62.
  • 2
    Bigger JT Jr, Fleiss JL, Steinman RC, Rolnitzky LM, Kleiger RE, Rottman JN. Frequency domain measures of heart period variability and mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation 1992; 85: 164 71.
  • 3
    O'Brien IA, McFadden JP, Corrall RJ. The influence of autonomic neuropathy on mortality in insulin-dependent diabetes. Q J Med 1991; 79: 495 502.
  • 4
    Cripps TR, Malik M, Farrell TG, Camm AJ. Prognostic value of reduced heart rate variability after myocardial infarction: clinical evaluation of a new analysis method. Br Heart J 1991; 65: 14 9.
  • 5
    American College of Cardiology Cardiovascular Technology Assessment Committee. Heart rate variability for risk stratification of life-threatening arrhythmias. J Am Coll Cardiol 1993; 22: 948 50.
  • 6
    Jensen T, Borch-Johnsen K, Kofoed-Enevoldsen A, Deckert T. Coronary heart disease in young type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with and without diabetic neuropathy: incidence and risk factors. Diabetologia 1987; 30: 144 8.
  • 7
    Sleight P, La Rovere MT, Mortara A, Pinna G, Maestri R, Leuzzi et al Physiology and pathophysiology of heart rate and blood pressure variability in humans: is power spectral analysis largely an index of baroreflex gain.? Clin Sci 1995; 88: 103 9.
  • 8
    Bernardi L, Leuzzi S, Radaelli A, Passino C, Johnston JA, Sleight P. Low-frequency spontaneous fluctuations of R-R interval and blood pressure in conscious humans: a baroreceptor or central phenomenon? Clin Sci 1994; 87: 649 54.
  • 9
    Reichard P, Britz A, Cars I, Nilsson BY, Sobocinsky-Olsson B, Rosenqvist U. The Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS): 18 months' results. Acta Med Scand 1988; 224: 115 22.
  • 10
    Reichard P, Nilsson B-Y, Rosenqvist U. The effect of long-term intensified insulin treatment on the development of mivrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 304 9.
  • 11
    Bigger JT, Fliess JL, Steinman RC, Rolnitzky LM, Kleiger RE, Rottman JN. Correlations among time and frequency domain measures of heart period variability two weeks after acute mycardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 1992; 69: 891 8.
  • 12
    Gamble G, Zorn J, Sanders G, MacMahon S, Sharpe N. Estimation of arterial stiffness, compliance and distensibility from M-mode ultrasound measurements of the common carotid artery. Stroke 1994; 25: 11 6.
  • 13
    Kawasaki T, Sasayama S, Yagi S, Asakawa T, Hirai T. Non-invasive assessment of the age related changes in arterial stiffness of major branches of the human arteries. Cardiovasc Res 1987; 21: 678 87.
  • 14
    Jensen-Urstad K & Rosfors S. A methodological study of arterial wall function using ultrasound technique. Clin Physiol 1997; 17: 557 67.
  • 15
    Jensen-Urstad KJ, Reichard PG, Rosfors JS, Lindblad LEL, Jensen-Urstad MT. Early atherosclerosis is retarded by improved long-term blood glucose control in patients with IDDM. Diabetes 1996; 45: 1253 8.
  • 16
    Katona PG & Jih F. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: a non-invasive measure of parasympathetic cardiac control. J Appl Physiol 1975; 39: 801 5.
  • 17
    Pagani M, Lombardi F, Guezzetti S, Rimoldi O, Furlan R, Pizzinelli et al Power spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities as a marker of sympatho-vagal interaction in man and conscious dog. Circ Res 1986; 59: 178 93.
  • 18
    Akselrod S, Gordon D, Ubel FA, Shannon DC, Barger AC, Cohen RJ. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuation: a quantitative probe of beat to beat cardiovascular control. Science 1981; 213: 220 2.
  • 19
    Pomeranz B, Macaulay RJB, Caudill MA, Kutz I, Adam D, Gordon et al Assessment of autonomic function in humans by heart rate spectral analysis. Am J Physiol 1985; 248: H151 3.
  • 20
    Saul JP, Rea RF, Eckberg DL, Berger ED, Cohen RJ. Heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve variability during reflex changes of autonomic activity. Am J Physiol 1990; 258: 713 21.
  • 21
    Kleiger RE, Bigger JT, Bosner MS, Chung MK, Cook JR, Rolnitzky L et al Stability over time of variables measuring heart rate variability in normal subjects. Am J Cardiol 1991; 68: 626 30.
  • 22
    Piepoli M, Sleight P, Leuzzi S, Valle F, Spadacini G, Passino et al Origin of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in conscious humans. An important role for the baroreflexes. Circulation 1997; 95: 1813 21.
  • 23
    Jensen-Urstad K, Storck N, Bouvier F, Ericson M, Lindblad LE, Jensen-Urstad M. Heart rate variability in healthy subjects is related to age and gender. Acta Physiol Scand 1997; 160: 235 41.
  • 24
    Hayano J, Sakakibara Y, Yamada M, Ohte N, Fujinami T, Yokoyama et al Decreased magnitude of heart rate spectral components in coronary artery disease. Its relation to angiographic severity. Circulation 1990; 81: 1217 24.
  • 25
    La Rovere MT, Specchia G, Mortara A, Schwartz PJ. Baroreflex sensitivity, clinical correlates, and cardiovascular mortality among patients with a first myocardial infarction. Circulation 1988; 78: 816 24.
  • 26
    Thubrikar MJ & Robicsek F. Pressure-induced arterial wall stress and atherosclerosis. Ann Thorac Surg 1995; 59: 1594 603.