• 1
    Grey HM & Kohler PF. Cryoglobulins. Semin Hematol 1973; 10: 87 96.
  • 2
    Disdier P, Harl JR, Weiller PJ. Cryoglobulinemia and hepatic infection. Lancet 1991; 338: 1151 3.
  • 3
    Agnello V, Chung RT, Kaplan LM. A role for hepatitis C virus infection in type II cryoglobulinemia. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1490 5.
  • 4
    Ferri C, Greco F, Longobardo G, Palla P, Moretti A, Marzo E, et al. Association between hepatitis C virus and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1991; 9: 621 4.
  • 5
    Pascual M, Perrin L, Giostra E, Schifferli JA. Hepatitis C virus in patients with cryoglobulinemia type II. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 569 70.
  • 6
    Zignego AL, Macchia D, Monti M, Thiers V, Mazzetti M, Foschi M, et al. Infection of peripheral mononuclear blood cells by hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol 1992; 15: 382 7.
  • 7
    Ferri C, Monti M, La Civita L, Longobardo G, Greco F, Pasero G, et al. Infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by hepatitis C virus in mixed cryoglobulinemia. Blood 1993; 82: 3701 4.
  • 8
    Invernizzi F, Pioltelli P, Cattaneo R, Gavazzeni V, Borzini P, Monti G, et al. Long-term follow-up study in essential mixed cryoglobulinemia. Acta Haematol 1979; 61: 9 15.
  • 9
    Pozzato G, Mazzaro C, Crovatto M, Modolo ML, Ceselli S, Mazzi G, et al. Low-grade malignant lymphoma, hepatitis C virus infection and mixed cryoglobulinemia. Blood 1994; 84 (9): 3047 53.
  • 10
    Johnson RJ, Gretch DR, Yamabe H, Hart J, Bacchi CE, Hartwell P, et al. Membranoproliferative glomerulo-nephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 1993; 7: 465 70.
  • 11
    Pasquariello A, Ferri C, Moriconi L, La Civita L, Longobardo G, Lombardini F, et al. Cryoglobulinemic membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus. Am J Nephrol 1993; 13: 300 4.
  • 12
    Horikoshi S, Okada T, Shirato I, Inokuchi S, Tomino Y, Koide H. Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with hepatitis C virus-like particles in paramesangial dense deposits in a patients with chronic hepatitis C virus hepatitis. Nephron 1993; 64: 462 4.
  • 13
    Cordonnier D, Vialtel P, Renversez JC, Chenais F, Favre M, Tournoud A, et al. Renal disease in 18 patients with mixed type II IgM cryoglobulinemia: Monoclonal lymphoid infiltration (2 cases) and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (14 cases). Adv Nephrol 1983; 12: 177 204.
  • 14
    Misiani R, Vicari O, Bellavita PM, Sonzogni A, Marin MG. Hepatitis C virus in renal tissue of patients with glomerulonephritis. Nephron 1994; 68: 400(Letter).
  • 15
    Okamoto H, Sugiyama Y, Okada S, Kurai K, Akahane Y, Sugai Y, et al. Typing hepatitis C virus by polymerase chain reaction with type-specific primers: application to clinical surveys and tracing infectious sources. J Gen Virol 1992; 73: 673 9.
  • 16
    National Cancer Institute sponsored study of classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Summary and description of a working formulation for clinical usage: The non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma pathological classification project. Cancer 1982; 49: 2112 35.
  • 17
    Young IT. Proof without prejudice: use of the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test for the analysis of histograms from flow system and other sources. J Histochem Cytochem 1977; 25: 935 41.
  • 18
    Ault AK. Detection of small numbers of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the blood of patients with lymphoma. N Engl J Med 1979; 300: 1401 5.
  • 19
    Chemello L, Cavalletto D, Pontisso P, Bortolotti F, Donada C, Donadon V, et al. Patterns of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic Non-A, Non-B hepatitis and their relationship to viral replication and liver disease. Hepatol 1993; 17: 179 83.
  • 20
    Okamoto H, Okada S, Sugiyama Y, Yotsumoto S, Tanaka T, Yoshizawa H, et al. The 5’ terminal sequence of hepatitis C virus genome. Jpn J Exp Med 1990; 60: 167 9.
  • 21
    Bukh J, Purcell RH, Miller RH. Sequence analysis of the 5′ noncoding region of hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 4942 6.
  • 22
    Houghton M, Weiner A, Han J, Kuo G, Choo QL. Molecular biology of the hepatitis C viruses. Implications for diagnosis, development and control of viral disease. Hepatol 1991; 14: 381 8.
  • 23
    Kaneko S, Unoura M, Kobayashi K, Kuno K, Murakami S, Hattori N. Detection of serum hepatitis C virus RNA. Lancet 1990; 335: 976(Letter).
  • 24
    Okamoto H, Tokita H, Sakamoto M, Horikita M, Iizuka H, Mishiro S. Characterization of the genomic sequence of the type V (or 3a) hepatitis C virus isolates and PCR primers for specific detection. J Gen Virol 1994; 75: 629 35.
  • 25
    Norusis MJ. Advanced Statistics SPSS/PC Chicago: SPSS Inc., 1986; 183 204.
  • 26
    Pagliaro L, Saracci R, Bardelli D, Filippazzo G. Chronic liver disease, alcohol consumption and HBsAg antigen in Italy: a multiregional case-control study. It J Gastroenterol 1982; 14: 90 5.
  • 27
    D’Amico G, Morabito A, Pagliaro L, Marubini E and the liver study group of ‘Cervello’ Hospital. Survival and prognostic indicators in compensated and decompensated cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1986; 31: 468 75.
  • 28
    Bellentani S, Tiribelli C, Saccoccio G, Sodde M, Fratti N, Demartin C, et al. Prevalence of chronic liver disease in the general population of Northern Italy: the Dyonisos study. Hepatol 1995; 20: 1442 9.
  • 29
    Alberti A, Morsica G, Chemello L, Cavalletto D, Noventa F, Pontisso P, Ruol A. Hepatitis C virus viraemia and liver disease in symptom-free individuals with anti-HCV. Lancet 1992; 340: 697 8.
  • 30
    Franzin F, Efremov DG, Pozzato G, Tulissi P, Batista F, Burrone O. Clonal B-cell expansion in peripheral blood of HCV-infected patients. Br J Haematol 1995; 90: 548 52.
  • 31
    Gorevic PD, Kassab HJ, Levo Y, Kohn R, Melzer M, Prose P, Franklin EC. Mixed cryoglobulinemia: Clinical aspects and long-term follow-up of 40 patients. Am J Med 1980; 69: 287 308.
  • 32
    Frankel AH, Singer DRJ, Winearls CG, Evans DJ, Rees AJ, Pusey CD. Type II essential mixed cryoglobulinemia: Presentation treatment and outcome in 13 patients. Quart J Med 1992; 82: 101 24.
  • 33
    Invernizzi F, Galli M, Serino G, Monti M, Meroni PL, Granattieri C, Zanussi C. Secondary and essential cryoglobulinemia. Acta Haematol 1983; 70: 73 82.
  • 34
    Silvestri F, Pipan C, Barillari G, Zaja F, Infanti L, Russo D, Fanin R, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Blood 1996; 87: 4296 301.
  • 35
    D’Amico G. Is Type II mixed cryoglobulinemia an essential part of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated glomerulonephritis? Nephrol Dial Transplant 1995; 10: 1279 82.
  • 36
    Tarantino A, Campise M, Banfi G, Confalonieri R, Bucci A, Montoli A, et al. Long-term predictors of survival in essential mixed cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 1995; 47: 618 23.
  • 37
    Pozzato G, Kaneko S, Moretti M, Crocè LS, Franzin F, Unoura M, et al. Different genotypes of hepatitis C virus are associated with different severity of chronic liver disease. J Med Virol 1994; 43: 291 6.
  • 38
    Okamoto H, Crovatto M, Pozzato G, Féray C, Bréchot C, Mishiro S. Molecular and clinical characteristics of the hepatitis C virus genotype ‘2c’ found in Italians in Italy and France. Int Hepatol Commun 1995; 3: 161 5.
  • 39
    Ballardini G, Groff P, Ghetti S, Francesconi R, Giostra F, Grassi A, et al. Number of HCV infected hepatocytes and hepatocellular HLA-A-B-C expression as useful parameters to identify short and long term responders to IFN treatment. J Hepatol 1995; 23: 96(Abstract).
  • 40
    Kim Jp Linnen J, Wages J, Fry K, Zhang-Kech Z-Y, Young L, et al. Hepatitis G virus (HGV): a new hepatitis virus associated with human hepatitis. J Hepatol 1995; 23: 78(Abstract).
  • 41
    Broder S, Humphrey R, Drum M. Impaired synthesis of polyclonal (non-paraprotein) immunoglobulins by lymphocytes from patients with multiple myeloma. N Engl J Med 1975; 293: 887 91.
  • 42
    Van Thiel DH, Fagiuoli S, Caraceni P, Wright HI, Nadir A, Gavaler JS, Zuhdi N. Cryoglobulinemia: a cause of false negative polymerase chain reaction results in patients with hepatitis C virus positive chronic liver disease. J Hepatol 1995; 22 (4): 464 7.
  • 43
    Mazzaro C, Pozzato G, Crovatto M, Moretti M, Crovatto M, Modolo ML, et al. Long-term effects of alfa-interferon therapy in mixed cryoglobulinemia. Haematologica 1994; 79 (4): 342 9.
  • 44
    Misiani R, Bellavita P, Fenili D, Vicari A, Marchesi D, Sironi PL, et al. Interferon alfa-2a therapy in cryoglobulinemia associated with hepatitis C virus. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 751 6.
  • 45
    Johnson RJ, Gretch DR, Yamabe H, Couser WG, Willson R. Interferon-α in the treatment of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis C virus infection: do we have enough data or are we still in the learning stage ? J Nephrol 1994; 7 (6): 336 9.
  • 46
    Adinolfi LE, Utili R, Attanasio V, Zampino R, Ragone M, Tripodi F, Ruggiero G. Epidemiology, clinical spectrum and prognostic value of mixed cryoglobulinemia in hepatitis C virus patients: a prospective study. It J Gastroenterology 1996; 28 (1): 1 9.