• 1
    Ohayon M. Epidemiogical study on insomnia in the general population. Sleep 1996; 19: 715.
  • 2
    Lugaresi E, Cirignotta F, Zucconi M, Mondini S, Lenzi PL, Coccagna G. Good and poor sleepers: an epidemiological survey of the San Marino population. In: Guilleminault C, Lugaresi E, eds. Sleep/Wake Disorders: Natural History, Epidemiology and Long-term Evolution. New York: Raven Press, 1983; 1–12.
  • 3
    Ustun TB, Privett M, Lecrubier Y et al. Form, frequency and burden of sleep problems in general health care: a report from the WHO Colloborative Study on psychological problems in general health care. Eur Psychiatry 1996; 11 (Suppl.):510.
  • 4
    Quera-Salva MA, Orluc A, Goldenberg F, Guilleminault C. Insomnia and use of hypnotics: study of a French population. Sleep 1991; 14: 38691.
  • 5
    Lindberg E, Janson C, Gislason T, Björnsson E, Hetta J, Boman G. Sleep disturbances in a young adult population: can gender differences be explained by differences in psychological status? Sleep 1997; 20: 3817.
  • 6
    Weyerer S, Dillinger H. Prevalence and treatment of insomnia in the community: results from the Upper Bavarian Field Study. Sleep 1991; 14: 3928.
  • 7
    Kripke D, Simons R, Garfinkel L, Hammond C. Short and long sleep and sleeping pills. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1979; 36: 10316.
  • 8
    Koskenvuo M, Kaprio J, Partinen M et al. Poor sleep quality, emotional stress and morbidity: a six year follow-up study of 10,778 persons aged 35–59 years. In: Pakaslahti A, ed. Stress and Psychosomatics. Helsinki: Psychiatrica Fennica, 1986; 115–20.
  • 9
    Pollack C, Perlick D, Linsner J, Wenston J, Hsieh F. Sleep problems in the community elderly as predictors of death and nursing home placement. J Community Health 1990; 2: 12335.
  • 10
    Foley D, Monjan A, Brown S, Simonsick EM, Wallace R, Blazer D. Sleep complaints among elderly persons: an epidemiologic study of three communities. Sleep 1995; 18: 42532.
  • 11
    Althuis MD, Fredman L, Langenberg PW, Magaziner J. The relationship between insomnia and mortality among community-dwelling older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 1998; 46: 12703.
  • 12
    Brabbins CJ, Dewey ME, Copeland RM et al. Insomnia in the elderly: prevalence, gender differences and relationships with morbidity and mortality. Int J Geriatr Psychiat 1993; 8: 47380.
  • 13
    Kripke D. Mortality risk of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152: 962962.
  • 14
    Bliwise D, Friedman L, Yesavage Y. Depression as confounding variable in estimation of habitual sleep time. J Clin Psychol 1993; 49: 4717.
  • 15
    APA. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  • 16
    ICD-9. International Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1987.
  • 17
    Wulsin L, Vaillant G, Wells V. A systematic review of the mortality of depression. Psychosom Med 1999; 61: 617.
  • 18
    Appels A, De Vos Y, Van Diest R, Hoppner P, Mulder P, DeGroen J. Are sleep complaints predictive of future myocardial infaction? Act Nerv Super (Praha) 1987; 29: 14751.
  • 19
    Siegrist J. Impaired quality of life as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease. J Chronic Dis 1987; 40: 5718.
  • 20
    Eaker E, Pinsky J, Castelli W. Myocardial infarction and coronary death among women: psychological predictors from a 20-year follow-up of women in the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 85464.
  • 21
    Schwartz S, Cornoni-Huntley J, Cole S, Hays J, Blazer D, Schocken D. Are sleep complaints an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction? Ann Epidemiol 1998; 8: 38492.
  • 22
    Schwartz S, Andersen WM, Cole S, Cornoni-Huntley J, Hays J, Blazer D. Insomnia and heart disease: a review of epidemiological studies. J Psychosom Res 1999; 47: 3133.
  • 23
    Wingard D, Berkman L. Mortality risk associated with sleeping patterns among adults. Sleep 1983; 6: 1027.
  • 24
    Qureshi A, Giles W, Croft J, Bliwise D. Habitual sleep patterns and risk for stroke and coronary heart disease: a 10-year follow-up from NHANES I. Neurology 1997; 48: 90411.
  • 25
    Liljenberg B, Almqvist M, Hetta J, Roos BE, Ågren H. The prevalence of insomnia: the importance of operationally defined criteria. Ann Clin Res 1988; 20: 3938.
  • 26
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983; 67: 36170.
  • 27
    Mallon L, Broman J-E, Hetta J. The relationship between insomnia, depression and mortality: a 12-year follow-up of older adults in the community. Int Psychogeriatr 2000; 3: 295306.
  • 28
    Gislason T, Almqvist M. Somatic diseases and sleep complaints: an epidemiological study of 3,201 Swedish men. Acta Med Scand 1987; 221: 47581.
  • 29
    Lindberg E, Janson C, Gislason T, Svärdsudd C, Hetta J, Boman G. Snoring and hypertension – a 10-year follow-up. Eur Resp J 1998; 11: 8849.
  • 30
    Kripke D, Klauber M, Wingard D, Fell R, Assmus J, Garfinkel L. Mortality hazard associated with prescription hypnotics. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 43: 68793.
  • 31
    ICSD. International Classification of Sleep Disorders; Diagnostic and Coding Manual. Diagnostic Classification Steering Committee, Thorpy MJ, Chairman. Rochester, MN: American Sleep Disorders Association, 1990.
  • 32
    Hetta J, Mallon L, Bengtsson H, Smedje H, Broman J-E. Polysomnographic versus questionnaire data on difficulties falling asleep and total sleep time. Poster, 14th European Congress on Sleep Research, Madrid, Spain. J Sleep Res 1998; 7 (Suppl.):116116.
  • 33
    Vanable P, Aikens J, Tadimeti L, Caruana-Montaldo B, Mendelson W. Sleep latency and duration estimates among sleep disorder patients: variability as a function of sleep disorder diagnosis, sleep history, and psychological characteristics. Sleep 2000; 23: 719.
  • 34
    Coates TJ, Killen JD, George J et al. Discriminating good sleeprs from insomniacs using all-night polysomnograms conducted at home. J Nerv Ment Dis 1982; 170: 22430.
  • 35
    Carlsson G, Svärdsudd K. Comparison of participants and non-participants in a population of injuries. The study of men born 1913 and 1923. Scand J Soc Med 1985; 13: 1522.
  • 36
    Wingard D. The sex differential in morbidity, mortality and lifestyle. Annu Rev Public Health 1984; 5: 43358.
  • 37
    Rozanski A, Blumenthal J, Kaplan J. Impact of psychological factors on the patogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. Circulation 1999; 99: 2192217.
  • 38
    Bonnet M, Arand D. Heart rate variability in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers . Psychosom Med 1998; 60: 6105.
  • 39
    Bonnet H, Arand D. 24-hour metabolic rate in insomniacs and matched normal sleepers. Sleep 1995; 18: 5818.
  • 40
    Bonnet M, Arand D. Activity, arousal, and the MSLT in patients with insomnia. Sleep 2000; 23: 20512.
  • 41
    Vgontzas AN, Tsigos C, Bixler EO et al. Chronic insomnia and activity of the stress system: a preliminary study. J Psychosom Res 1998; 45: 2131.
  • 42
    Bixler E, Kales A, Soldatos C, Kales J, Healy S. Prevalence of sleep disorders in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area. Am J Psychiatry 1979; 136: 125762.
  • 43
    Hohagen F, Käppler C, Schramm E et al. Prevalence of insomnia in elderly general practice attenders and the current treatment modalities. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1994; 90: 1028.
  • 44
    Van Diest R. Subjective sleep characteristics as coronary risk factors, their association with Type A behaviour and vital exhaustion. J Psychosom Res 1990; 34: 41526.
  • 45
    Bonnet M. Performance and sleepiness as a function of frequency and placement of sleep disruption. Psychophysiology 1986; 23: 26371.
  • 46
    Kaplan G, Seeman T, Cohen R, Knudsen L, Guralnik J. Mortality among the elderly in the Alameda County Study: behavioural and demographic risk factors. Am J Public Health 1987; 77: 30712.
  • 47
    Lindberg E, Jansson C, Svärdsudd K, Gislason T, Hetta J, Boman G. Increased mortality among sleep snorers: a prospective population based study. Thorax 1998; 53: 6317.
  • 48
    Allgulander C, Näsman P. Regular hypnotic treatmant in a sample of 32,679 Swedes: associations with somatic and mental health, inpatient psychiatric diagnosis and suicide, derived with automated record-linkage. Psychosom Med 1991; 53: 1018.
  • 49
    Ohayon M, Caulet M, Priest R, Guilleminault C. Psychotropic medication consumption patterns in the UK general population. J Clin Epidemiol 1998; 51: 27383.
  • 50
    Graham K, Vidal-Zeballos D. Analyses of use of tranquillizers and sleeping pills across five surveys of the same population (1985–1991): the relationship with gender, age and use of other substances. Soc Sci Med 1998; 46: 38195.
  • 51
    Kageyama T, Kabuto M, Nitta H et al. Prevalence of use of medically prescribed hypnotics among adult Japanese women in urban residential areas. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998; 52: 6974.
  • 52
    Sundquist J, Ekedahl A, Johansson S. Sales of tranquillizers, hypnotics/sedatives and antidepressants and their relationship with underpriviliged area score and mortality and suicide rates. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1996; 51: 1059.
  • 53
    Schade C, Jones Ej, Wittlin B. A ten-year review of the validity and clinical utility of depression screening. Psychiatr Serv 1998; 49: 5561.
  • 54
    Williams JwJr, Mulrow CD, Kroenke K et al. Case-finding for depression in primary care: a randomized trial. Am J Med 1999; 106: 3643.
  • 55
    Mahoney J, Drinka TJ, Abler R et al. Screening for depression: single question versus GDS. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 10068.
  • 56
    McKenzie N, Marks I. Quick rating of depressed mood in patients with anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 174: 2669.
  • 57
    Chochinov H, Wilson K, Enns M, Lander S. ‘Are you depressed?’ Screening for depression in the terminally ill. Am J Psychiatry 1997; 154: 6746.