• 1
    Pi-Sunyer FX. Health implications of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1991; 53 (Suppl.):S1595S1603.
  • 2
    Calle EE, Thun MJ, Petrelli JM, Rodriguez C, Heath CW. Body-mass index and mortality in a prospective cohort of U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1097105.
  • 3
    Wannamethee G, Shaper AG. Weight change in middle-aged British men: implications for health. Eur J Clin Nutr 1990; 44: 13342.
  • 4
    Lee IM, Paffenberger RS Change in body weight and longevity. JAMA 1992; 268: 20459.
  • 5
    Pamuk ER, Williamson DF, Madans J, Serdula MK, Kleinman JC, Byers T. Weight loss and mortality in a national cohort of adults 1971−87. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 136: 68697.
  • 6
    Walker M, Wannamethee G, Whincup PH, Sharper AG. Weight change and risk of heart attack in middle-aged British men. Int J Epidemiol 1995; 24: 694703.
  • 7
    Yaari S, Gouldbourt U. Voluntary and involuntary weight loss: associations with long term mortality in 9,228 middle-aged and elderly men. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 54655.
  • 8
    Gaesser GA. Thinness and weight loss: beneficial or detrimental to longevity? Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999; 31: 111828.
  • 9
    Lissner L, Odell PM, D'Agostino RB et al. Variability of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 183944.
  • 10
    Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F. Weight changes and risk of ischaemic heart disease for middle aged and elderly men. An 8-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study. J Cardiovasc Risk 1997; 4: 2532.
  • 11
    Mikkelsen KL, Heitmann BL, Keiding N, Sorensen TI. Independent effects of stable and changing body weight on total mortality. Epidemiology 1999; 10: 6718.
  • 12
    Lean ME, Powrie JK, Anderson AS, Garthwaite PH. Obesity, weight loss, and prognosis in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 1990; 7: 22833.
  • 13
    Williamson DF, Pamuk E, Thun M, Flanders D, Byears T, Heath C. Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in overweight white men aged 40−64 years. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: 491503.
  • 14
    Allison DB, Zannolli R, Faith MS et al. Weight loss increases and fat loss decreases all-cause mortality rate: results from two independent cohort studies. Int J Obes Realt Metab Disord 1999; 23: 60311.
  • 15
    McGuire MT, Wing RR, Klem ML, Hill JO. The behavioral characteristics of individuals who lose weight unintentionally. Obes Res 1999; 7: 48590.
  • 16
    Sjöström CD, Lissner L, Wedel H, Sjöström CD. Reduction in incidence of diabetes, hypertension and lipid disturbances after intentional weight loss induced by bariatric surgery: the SOS Intervention Study. Obes Res 1999; 7: 47784.
  • 17
    Sjöström CD. Effects of surgically induced weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors. Results from the intervention study Swedish Obese Subjects. Thesis, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 2000.
  • 18
    Karason K, Wikstrand J, Sjöström L, Wendelhag I. Weight loss and progression of early atherosclerosis in the carotid artery: a four-year controlled study of obese subjects. Int J Obesity 1999; 23: 94856.
  • 19
    Sjöström L, Debate. Does a sustained weight loss lead to decreased morbidity and mortality? (Abstract). Int J Obesity 1999; 23 (Suppl. 5):S20S20.
  • 20
    Narbro K, Ågren G, Jonsson E et al. Sick leave and disability pension before and after treatment for obesity: a report from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study. Int J Obes Realt Metab Disord 1999; 23: 61924.
  • 21
    Trell E. Community-based preventive medical department for individual risk factor assessment and intervention in an urban area. Prev Med 1983; 12: 397402.
  • 22
    Berglund G, Nilsson P, Eriksson K-F et al. Long-term outcome of the Malmö Preventive Project: mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. J Intern Med 2000; 247: 1929.
  • 23
    Kuskowska-Wolk A, Bergström R. Trends in body mass index and prevalence of obesity in Swedish men 1980−89. J Epidemiol Community Health 1993; 47: 1038.
  • 24
    Sorkin JD, Muller DC, Andres R. Longitudinal changes in height of men and women: implications for the interpretation of the body mass index. The Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 96977.
  • 25
    Nilsson P. Premature ageing − the link between psychosocial risk factors and disease? Med Hypotheses 1996; 47: 3942.
  • 26
    Blair SN, Kohl HW III, Barlow CE et al. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality: a prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA 1995; 273: 10938.
  • 27
    Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R, Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking. 40 years' observation on male Bristich doctors. BMJ 1994; 309: 90111.
  • 28
    Hjermann I, Byre KV, Holme I, Leren P. Effect of diet and smoking intervention on the incidence of coronary heart disease. Lancet 1981; ii: 130310.
  • 29
    Williamson DF, Thompson TJ, Thun M, Flanders D, Pamuk E, Byers T. Intentional weight loss and mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 1499504.
  • 30
    Wannamethee SG, Shaper AG, Whincup PH, Walker M. Characteristics of older men who lose weight intentionally or unintentionally. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 151: 66775.
  • 31
    Leibel RL, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J. Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 6218.