• antioxidant;
  • artificial red blood cells;
  • blood substitutes;
  • microencapsulation;
  • nanoencapsulation;
  • oxygen carriers


Chang TMS (Artificial Cells & Organs Research Center, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada). Future generations of red blood cell substitutes (Minisymposium). J Intern Med 2003; 253: 527–535.

Polyhaemoglobins (PolyHb) and perfluorochemicals are in advanced phase III clinical trials and conjugated haemoglobins in phase II clinical trial. New recombinant human haemoglobin with no vasoactivity is being developed. A soluble macromolecule of PolyHb–catalase–superoxide dismutase is being studied as an oxygen carrier with antioxidant properties. New artificial red blood cells that are more like RBC are being developed. One is based on haemoglobin lipid vesicles. A more recent one is based on nano-dimension artificial red blood cells containing haemoglobin and RBC enzymes with membrane formed from composite copolymer of polyethylene glycol–polylactic acid. Their circulation time is double that of PolyHb.