SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Garcia MJ, McNamara PM, Gordon T, Kannel WB. Morbidity and mortality in diabetics in the Framingham population. Sixteen year follow-up study. Diabetes 1974; 23: 10511.
  • 2
    Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000; 321: 40512.
  • 3
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ 1998; 317: 70313.
  • 4
    Haffner SM. The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) subgroup analysis of diabetic subjects: implications for the prevention of coronary heart disease [editorial; comment]. Diabetes Care 1997; 20: 46971.
  • 5
    Bostom AG, Rosenberg IH, Silbershatz H et al. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine levels and stroke incidence in elderly persons: the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 3525.
  • 6
    Selhub J, Jacques PF, Bostom AG et al. Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 28691.
  • 7
    Nygard O, Nordrehaug JE, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Farstad M, Vollset SE. Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 2306.
  • 8
    Brattstrom LE, Israelsson B, Jeppsson JO, Hultberg BL. Folic acid – an innocuous means to reduce plasma homocysteine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1988; 48: 21521.
  • 9
    Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Beks PJ et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, especially in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a population-based study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 1338.
  • 10
    Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Jakobs C et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia increases risk of death, especially in type 2 diabetes: 5-year follow-up of the Hoorn study. Circulation 2000; 101: 150611.
  • 11
    Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Jager A et al. Serum homocysteine level and protein intake are related to risk of microalbuminuria: the Hoorn study. Kidney Int 1998; 54: 2039.
  • 12
    Jager A, Kostense PJ, Nijpels G et al. Serum homocysteine levels are associated with the development of (micro)albuminuria: the Hoorn study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 7481.
  • 13
    Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Eysink PE et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with the presence of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Hoorn study. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 298490.
  • 14
    Shane B, Stokstad EL. The interrelationships among folate, vitamin B12, and methionine metabolism. Adv Nutr Res 1983; 5: 13370.
  • 15
    Naurath HJ, Joosten E, Riezler R, Stabler SP, Allen RH, Lindenbaum J. Effects of vitamin B12, folate, and vitamin B6 supplements in elderly people with normal serum vitamin concentrations. Lancet 1995; 346: 859.
  • 16
    DeFronzo RA, Goodman AM. Efficacy of metformin in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Multicenter Metformin Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 5419.
  • 17
    Caspary W, Zavada I, Reimold W, Deuticke U, Emrich D, Willms B. Alteration of bile acid metabolism and vitamin-B12-absorption in diabetics on biguanides. Diabetologia 1977; 13: 18793.
  • 18
    Tomkin G, Hadden D, Weaver J, Montgomery D. Vitamin-B12 status of patients on long-term metformin therapy. BMJ 1971; 2: 685786.
  • 19
    Carlsen SM, Folling I, Grill V, Bjerve KS, Schneede J, Refsum H. Metformin increases total serum homocysteine levels in non-diabetic male patients with coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1997; 57: 5217.
  • 20
    Aarsand AK, Carlsen SM. Folate administration reduces circulating homocysteine levels in NIDDM patients on long-term metformin treatment. J Intern Med 1998; 244: 16974.
  • 21
    Hoogeveen EK, Kostense PJ, Jakobs C, Bouter LM, Heine RJ, Stehouwer CD. Does metformin increase the serum total homocysteine level in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus? J Intern Med 1997; 242: 38994.
  • 22
    Wulffelé MG, Kooy A, Lehert P et al. Combination of insulin and metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 213340.
  • 23
    Cockcroft DW, Gault MH. Prediction of creatinine clearance from serum creatinine. Nephron 1976; 16: 3141.
  • 24
    Spaapen LJM, Waterval WAH, Bakker JA, Luijkx GJ, Vles JSH. Detectie van hyperhomocysteine bij vroegtijdige cerebrovasculaire ziekte. Tijdschrift NVKC 1992; 17: 19499.
  • 25
    Erler K. Elecsys immunoassay systems using electrochemiluminescence detection. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1998; Suppl 3: 510.
  • 26
    Stockmann W, Bablok W, Luppa P. Analytical performance of Elecsys 2010 – a multicentre evaluation. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1998; Suppl 3: 1021.
  • 27
    Bollen K. Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: Wiley, 1989.
  • 28
    Loehlin J. Latent Variable Model, 2nd edn. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992.
  • 29
    Callaghan T, Hadden D, Tomkin G. Megaloblastic anaemia due to vitamin B 12 malabsorption associated with long-term metformin treatment. BMJ 1980; 280: 121415.
  • 30
    Adams J, Clarke J, Ireland J, Kesson C, Watson W. Malabsorption of vitamin B12 and intrinsic factor secretion uring biguanide therapy. Diabetologia 1983; 24: 168.
  • 31
    Bauman WA, Shaw S, Jayatilleke E, Spungen AM, Herbert V. Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 122731.
  • 32
    Homocysteine Studies Collaboration. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: 6000 events in 30 observational studies. JAMA 2002; 288: 201522.
  • 33
    Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr 1999; 19: 35777.
  • 34
    Selhub J, Jacques PF, Wilson PW, Rush D, Rosenberg IH. Vitamin status and intake as primary determinants of homocysteinemia in an elderly population. JAMA 1993; 270: 26938.
  • 35
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 1998; 352: 85465.