• 1
    Kannel WB, Castelli WP, Gordon T, McNamara PM. Serum cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the risk of coronary heart disease: the Framingham study. Ann Intern Med 1971; 74: 112.
  • 2
    Stamler J, Wentworth D, Neaton JD, for the MRFIT Research Group. Is relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease continuous and graded? Findings in 356,222 primary screenees of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). JAMA 1986; 256: 28238.
  • 3
    Law MR, Wald NJ, Wu T, Hackshaw A, Bailey A. Systematic underestimation of association between serum cholesterol concentration and ischaemic heart disease in observational studies: data from the BUPA study. BMJ 1994; 308: 3636.
  • 4
    Vogel RA. The management of hypercholesterolemia in patients with coronary artery disease: guidelines for primary care. Clin Cornerstone 1998; 1: 5164.
  • 5
    Genest J Jr, McNamara JR, Ordovas JM et al. Lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and B and lipoprotein (a) abnormalities in men with premature coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992; 19: 792802.
  • 6
    Ginsburg GS, Safran C, Pasternak RC. Frequency of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in hospitalized patients with ‘desirable’ total cholesterol levels. Am J Cardiol 1991; 68: 18792.
  • 7
    Superko RH. Beyond LDL cholesterol reduction. Circulation 1996; 94: 23514.
  • 8
    Packard CJ, Shepherd J. Lipoprotein heterogeneity and apolipoprotein B metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 354256.
  • 9
    Packard CJ. Apolipoprotein B metabolism in dyslipidaemia and the effect of drugs. Diab Nutr Metab 1999; 12: 3115.
  • 10
    Talmud PJ, Hawe E, Miller GJ, Humphries SE. Nonfasting apolipoprotein B and triglyceride levels as a useful predictor of coronary heart disease risk in middle-aged UK men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 191823.
  • 11
    Walldius G, Jungner I, Holme I, Aastveit A, Kolar W, Steiner E. High apolipoprotein B, low apolipoprotein A-I, and improvement in the prediction of fatal myocardial infarction (AMORIS study): a prospective study. Lancet 2001; 358: 202633.
  • 12
    Lamarche B, Moorjani S, Lupien PJ et al. Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels and the risk of ischemic heart disease during a five-year follow-up of men in the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. Circulation 1996; 94: 2738.
  • 13
    Reed J. Lipoprotein Metabolism. Available from: URL:
  • 14
    Betteridge DJ, Morrell JM (eds). Clinician's Guide to Lipids and Coronary Heart Disease. London, UK: Arnold, 1999.
  • 15
    Elovson J, Chatterton JE, Bell GT et al. Plasma very low density lipoproteins contain a single molecule of apolipoprotein B. J Lipid Res 1988; 29: 146173.
  • 16
    Hurt-Camejo E, Camejo G, Rosengren B, Lopez F, Wiklund O, Bondjers G. Differential uptake of proteoglycan-selected subfractions of LDL by human macrophages. J Lipid Res 1990; 31: 138798.
  • 17
    Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Moorjani S et al. Small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles as a predictor of the risk of ischemic heart disease in men: prospective results from the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. Circulation 1997; 95: 6975.
  • 18
    Ballantyne CM, Andrews TC, Hsia JA, Kramer JH, Shear C, for the ACCESS Study Group. Correlation of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with apolipoprotein B: effect of 5 hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88: 2659.
  • 19
    Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 3143421.
  • 20
    Bittner V, Hardison R, Kelsey SF, Weiner BH, Jacobs AK, Sopko G. Non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels predict five-year outcome in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI). Circulation 2002; 106: 253742.
  • 21
    Sniderman AD, Furberg CD, Keech A et al. Apolipoproteins versus lipids as indices of coronary risk and as targets for statin treatment. Lancet 2003; 361: 77780.
  • 22
    Austin MA, Breslow JL, Hennnekes CH, Buring JE, Willett KC, Krauss RM. Low-density lipoprotein subclass patterns and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA 1988; 260: 191721.
  • 23
    Sniderman AD, Pedersen T, Kjekshus J. Putting low-density lipoproteins at center stage in atherogenesis. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79: 647.
  • 24
    Walldius G, Jungner I, Aastveit A, Holme I, Sniderman AD. Increased risk of fatal myocardial infarction related to high triglycerides, high apoB and low apoA-I in the AMORIS study. Diabetes 2002; 51(Suppl.): A20.
  • 25
    Grundy SM. Low density lipoprotein, non-high density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B as targets of lipid-lowering therapy. Circulation 2002; 106: 25269.
  • 26
    Sniderman AD. How, when and why to use apolipoprotein B in clinical practice. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90: 48I54I.
  • 27
    Sniderman AD, Scantlebury T, Cianflone K. Hypertriglyceridemic hyperapoB: unappreciated atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135: 44759.
  • 28
    Srivastava RAK, Srivastava N. High density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I, and coronary artery disease. Mol Cell Biochem 2000; 209: 13144.
  • 29
    Phillips MC, Gillotte KL, Haynes MP, Johnson WJ, Lund-Katz S, Rothblat GH. Mechanisms of high density lipoprotein-mediated efflux of cholesterol from cell plasma membranes. Atherosclerosis 1998; 137(Suppl.): S137.
  • 30
    Oram JF, Lawn RM, Garvin MR, Wade DP. ABCA1 is the cAMP-inducible apolipoprotein receptor that mediates cholesterol secretion from macrophages. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 3450811.
  • 31
    Oram JF, Lawn RM. ABCA1. The gatekeeper for eliminating excess tissue cholesterol. J Lipid Res 2001; 42: 11739.
  • 32
    Wang N, Silver DL, Thiele C, Tall AR. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) functions as a cholesterol efflux regulatory protein. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 237427.
  • 33
    Wang N, Silver Dl, Costet P, Tall AR. Specific binding of apoA-1, enhanced cholesterol efflux, and altered plasma membrane morphology in cells expressing ABC1. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 330538.
  • 34
    Zhang B, Saku K, Ohta T. In vivo metabolism of HDL, apo A-I, and lp A-I, and function of HDL – a clinical perspective. J Atheroscler Thromb 2000; 7: 5966.
  • 35
    Tailleux A, Duriez P, Fruchart JC, Clavey V. Apolipoprotein A-II, HDL metabolism and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 2002; 164: 113.
  • 36
    Kalopissis AD, Chambaz J. Cholesterol homeostatic mechanisms in transgenic mice with altered expression of apoproteins A-I, A-II and A-IV. Int J Tissue React 2000; 22: 6778.
  • 37
    Duriez P, Fruchart JC. High-density lipoprotein subclasses and apolipoprotein A-I. Clin Chim Acta 1999; 286: 97114.
  • 38
    Castro GC, Fielding CJ. Early incorporation of cell-derived cholesterol into Pre-β-migrating high-density lipoprotein. Biochemistry 1988; 27: 259.
  • 39
    Luc G, Bard JM, Ferrières J et al. Value of HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein A-I, and lipoprotein A-I/A-II in prediction of coronary heart disease: the PRIME Study. Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 115561.
  • 40
    Garfagnini A, Devoto G, Rosselli P et al. Relationship between HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-I and the severity of coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 1995; 16: 46570.
  • 41
    O'Brien T, Nguyen TT, Hallaway BL et al. The role of lipoprotein A-I and lipoprotein A-I/A-II in predicting coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1995; 15: 22831.
  • 42
    Francis MC, Frohlich JJ. Coronary artery disease in patients at low risk – apolipoprotein A-I as an independent risk factor. Atherosclerosis 2001; 155: 16570.
  • 43
    Chong PH, Bachenheimer BS. Current, new and future treatments in dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Drugs 2000; 60: 5593.
  • 44
    Jong MC, Havekes LM. Insights into apolipoprotein C metabolism from transgenic and gene-targeted mice. Int J Tissue React 2000; 22: 5966.
  • 45
    Shachter NS. Apolipoproteins C-I and C-III as important modulators of lipoprotein metabolism. Curr Opin Lipidol 2001; 12: 297304.
  • 46
    Brewer HB Jr. Hypertriglyceridemia: changes in the plasma lipoproteins associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83: 3F12F.
  • 47
    Sacks FM, Alaupovic P, Moye LA et al. VLDL, apolipoproteins, B, CIII, and E, and risk of recurrent coronary events in the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) trial. Circulation 2000; 102: 188692.
  • 48
    Bard JM, Charles MA, Juhan-Vague I et al. Accumulation of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein in subjects with abdominal obesity: the biguanides and the prevention of the risk of obesity (BIGPRO) 1 study. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 40714.
  • 49
    Chan DC, Watts GF, Redgrave TG, Mori TA, Barrett PHR. Apolipoprotein B-100 kinetics in visceral obesity: associations with plasma apolipoprotein C-III concentration. Metabolism 2002; 51: 10416.
  • 50
    Blankenhorn DH, Alaupovic P, Wickham E, Chin HP, Azen SP. Prediction of angiographic change in native human coronary arteries and aortocoronary bypass grafts. Lipid and nonlipid factors. Circulation 1990; 81: 4706.
  • 51
    Hodis HN, Mack WJ, Azen SP et al. Triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins have a differential effect on mild/moderate and severe lesion progression as assessed by quantitative coronary angiography in a controlled trial of lovastatin. Circulation 1994; 90: 429.
  • 52
    Davignon J, Cohn JS, Mabile L, Bernier L. Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis: insight from animal and human studies. Clin Chim Acta 1999; 286: 11543.
  • 53
    Larkin L, Khachigian LM, Jessup W. Regulation of apolipoprotein E production in macrophages (review). Int J Mol Med 2000; 6: 2538.
  • 54
    Smith JD. Apolipoprotein E4: an allele associated with many diseases. Ann Med 2000; 32: 11827.
  • 55
    van Bockxmeer FM, Mamotte CD. Apolipoprotein epsilon 4 homozygosity in young men with coronary heart disease. Lancet 1992; 340: 87980.
  • 56
    Siest G, Bertrand P, Herbeth B et al. Apolipoprotein E polymorphisms and concentration in chronic diseases and drug responses. Clin Chem Lab Med 2000; 38: 84152.
  • 57
    Rassart E, Bedirian A, Do Carmo S et al. Apolipoprotein D. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000; 1482: 18598.
  • 58
    Grainger DJ, Kirschenlohr HL, Metcalfe JC, Weissberg PL, Wade DP, Lawn RM. Proliferation of human smooth muscle cells promoted by lipoprotein(a). Science 1993; 260: 16558.
  • 59
    Jungner I, Mendis S, Bjellerup P. Lipoprotein(a): levels in a Swedish population in relation to other lipid parameters and in comparison with a male Sri Lankan population. Clin Biochem 1995; 28: 42734.
  • 60
    Schreiner PJ, Morrisett JD, Sharrett AR et al. Lipoprotein(a) as a risk factor for preclinical atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb 1993; 13: 82633.
  • 61
    Scanu AM, Fless GM. Lipoprotein (a): heterogeneity and biological relevance. J Clin Invest 1990; 85: 170915.
  • 62
    Cuomo S, Guarini P, Gaeta G et al. Increased carotid intima-media thickness in children-adolescents, and young adults with a parental history of premature myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 2002; 23: 134550.
  • 63
    Knopp RH, Alagona P, Davidson M, Goldberg AC, Kafonek SD, Kashyap M et al. Equivalent efficacy of a time-release form of niacin (Niaspan) given once-a-night versus plain niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Metabolism 1998; 47: 1097104.
  • 64
    Scanu AM. The role of lipoprotein(a) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its utility as a predictor of coronary heart disease events. Curr Cardiol Rep 2001; 3: 38590.
  • 65
    Marcovina SM, Albers JJ, Scanu AM et al. Use of a reference material proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine to evaluate analytical methods for the determination of plasma lipoprotein (a). Clin Chem 2000; 46: 195667.
  • 66
    Alaupovic P. David Rubinstein Memorial Lecture: the biochemical and clinical significance of the interrelationship between very low density and high density lipoproteins. Can J Biochem 1981; 59: 56579.
  • 67
    Alaupovic P, Marck WJ, Knight-Gibson C, Hodis HN. The role of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein families in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions as determined by sequential coronary angiography from a controlled clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 71522.
  • 68
    Carlson LA, Bottiger LE, Ahfeldt PE. Risk factors for myocardial infarction in the Stockholm prospective study. A 14-year follow-up focussing on the role of plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Acta Med Scand 1979; 206: 35160.
  • 69
    Austin MA, Hokanson JE, Edwards KL. Hypertriglyceridemia as a cardiovascular risk factor. Am J Cardiol 1998; 81: 7B12B.
  • 70
    Jeppesen J, Hein HO, Suadicani P, Gyntelberg F. Triglyceride concentration and ischemic heart disease: an eight-year follow-up in the Copenhagen Male Study. Circulation 1998; 97: 102936.
  • 71
    Assmann G. Pro and con: high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and other lipid subfractions are the future of lipid management. Am J Cardiol 2001; 87(Suppl.): 2B7B.
  • 72
    Castelli WP, Garrison RJ, Wilson PWF, Abbott RD, Kalousdian S, Kannel WB. Incidence of coronary heart disease and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The Framingham Study. JAMA 1986; 256: 28358.
  • 73
    Avogaro P, Bon GB, Cazzolato G et al. Variations in apolipoproteins B and A1 during the course of myocardial infarction. Eur J Clin Invest 1978; 8: 1219.
  • 74
    Avogaro P, Bon GB, Cazzolato G, Rorai E. Relationship between apolipoproteins and chemical components of lipoproteins in survivors of myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis 1980; 37: 6976.
  • 75
    Sniderman AD, Shapiro S, Marpole D, Skinner B, Teng B, Kwiterowich PO Jr. Association of coronary atherosclerosis with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia (increased protein but normal cholesterol levels in human plasma low density [beta] lipoproteins). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1980; 77: 6048.
  • 76
    Rader DJ, Hoeg JM, Brewer HB Jr. Quantitation of plasma apolipoproteins in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120: 101225.
  • 77
    Bhatnager D, Durrington PN. Measurement and clinical significance of apolipoproteins A-I and B. In: RifaiN, WarnickGR, DominiczakMH, eds. Handbook of Lipoprotein Testing, 2nd edn. Washington, DC: AACC Press, 2000; 287310.
  • 78
    Durrington PN. Can measurement of apolipoprotein B replace the lipid profile in the follow-up of patients with lipoprotein disorders? Clin Chem 2002; 48: 4012.
  • 79
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Frederickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972; 18: 499502.
  • 80
    National Cholesterol Education Program Recommendations on Lipoprotein Measurement. From the Working Group on Lipoprotein Measurement. NIH Publication No 95-3044. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 1995.
  • 81
    Scharnagl H, Naquck M, Wieland H, Märtz W. The Friedewald formula underestimates LDL cholesterol at low concentrations. Clin Chem Lab Med 2001; 39: 42631.
  • 82
    Otvos JD. Why cholesterol measurements may be misleading about lipoprotein levels and cardiovascular risk – clinical implications of lipoprotein quantification using NMR spectroscopy. J Lab Med 2002; 26: 54450.
  • 83
    Marcovina SM, Albers JJ, Henderson LO, Hannon WH. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. III. Comparability of apolipoprotein A-I values by use of international reference material. Clin Chem 1993; 39: 77381.
  • 84
    Marcovina SM, Albers JJ, Kennedy H, Mei JV, Henderson LO, Hannon WH. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry standardization project for measurements of apolipoproteins A-I and B. IV. Comparability of apolipoprotein B values by use of international reference material. Clin Chem 1994; 40: 58692.
  • 85
    Jungner I, Walldius G, Holme I, Kolar W, Steiner E. Apolipoprotein B and A-I in relation to serum cholesterol and triglycerides in 43 000 males and females. Int J Lab Res 1992; 21: 24755.
  • 86
    Jungner I, Marcovina SM, Walldius G, Holme I, Kolar W, Steiner E. Apolipoprotein B and A-I values in 147576 Swedish males and females, standardized according to the World Health Organization–International Federation of Clinical Chemistry First International Reference Materials. Clin Chem 1998; 44: 16419.
  • 87
    Steer P, Hulthe J, Millgård J et al. Endothelial vasodilatory function is predicted by circulatory apolipoprotein B and HDL in healthy humans. Lipids 2002; 37: 113540.
  • 88
    Sharett AR, Patsch W, Sorlie PD, Heiss G, Bond MG, Davis CE. Associations of lipoprotein cholesterols, apolipoproteins A-I and B, and triglycerides with carotid atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Arterioscler Thromb 1994; 14: 1098104.
  • 89
    Marques-Vidal P, Amar J, Cambou JP, Chamontin B. Relationships between blood pressure components, lipids and lipoproteins in normotensive men. J Hum Hypertens 1996; 10: 23944.
  • 90
    Steer P, Millgård J, Sarabi MD et al. Cardiac and vascular structure and function are related to lipid peroxidation and metabolism. Lipids 2002; 37: 2316.
  • 91
    Keulen ETP, Kruijshoop M, Schaper NC, Hoeks APG, de Bruin TWA. Increased intima-media thickness in familial combined hyperlipidemia associated with apolipoprotein B. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2002; 22: 2838.
  • 92
    Westerveld HT, Roeters van Lennep JE, Roeters van Lennep HWO et al. Apolipoprotein B and coronary artery disease in women: a cross-sectional study in women undergoing their first coronary angiography. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 11017.
  • 93
    Snehalatha C, Ramachandran A, Sivasankari S et al. Is increased apolipoprotein B-A major factor enhancing the risk of coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes? J Assoc Physicians India 2002; 50: 10368.
  • 94
    Hamsten A, Walldius G, Szamosi A, Dahlen G, de Faire H. Relationship of angiographically defined coronary artery disease to serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in young survivors of myocardial infarction. Circulation 1986; 73: 1097110.
  • 95
    Blankenhorn DH, Selzer RH, Crawford DW et al. Beneficial effects of colestipol-niacin therapy on the common carotid artery. Two- and four-year reduction of intima-media thickness measured by ultrasound. Circulation 1993; 88: 208.
  • 96
    Freedman DS, Srinivasan SR, Shear CL, Franklin FA, Webber LS, Berenson GS. The relation of apolipoproteins A-I and B in children to parental myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1986; 315: 7216.
  • 97
    Bolibar I, von Eckardstein A, Assmann G, Thompson S. Short-term prognostic value of lipid measurements in patients with angina pectoris. The ECAT Angina Pectoris Study Group: European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities. Thromb Haemost 2000; 84: 95560.
  • 98
    Lundstam U, Herlitz J, Karlsson T, Lindén T, Wiklund O. Serum lipids, lipoprotein(a) level, and apolipoprotein(a) isoforms as prognostic markers in patients with coronary heart disease. J Intern Med 2002; 251: 1118.
  • 99
    Walldius G, Jungner I, Kolar W, Holme I, Steiner E. High cholesterol and triglyceride values in Swedish males and females: increased risk of fatal myocardial infarction. First report from the AMORIS (Apolipoprotein-related MOrtality RISk) Study. Blood Press Suppl 1992; 4: 3542.
  • 100
    Walldius G, Jungner I, Aastveit AH, Holme I. Apolipoproteins and prediction of fatal myocardial infarction. Reply. Lancet 2002; 359: 18634.
  • 101
    Moss AJ, Goldstein RE, Marder VJ et al. Thrombogenic factors and recurrent coronary events. Circulation 1999; 99: 251722.
  • 102
    Gotto AM Jr, Whitney E, Stein EA et al. Relation between baseline and on-treatment lipid parameters and first acute major coronary events in the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Preventions Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS). Circulation 2000; 101: 47784.
  • 103
    Pedersen TJ, Olsson AG, Faergeman O et al. Lipoprotein changes and reduction in the incidence of major coronary heart disease events in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Circulation 1998; 97: 145360.
  • 104
    Roeters van Lennep JE, Westerveld HT, Roeters van Lennep HW, Zwinderman AH, Erkelens DW, van der Wall EE. Apolipoprotein concentrations during treatment and recurrent coronary artery disease events. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20: 240813.
  • 105
    Bachorik PS, Lovejoy KL, Caroll MD, Johnson CL. Apolipoprotein B and A-I distributions in the United States, 1988–1991: results of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III). Clin Chem 1997; 43: 236478.
  • 106
    Connelly PW, Poapst M, Davignon J et al. Reference values of plasma apolipoproteins A-I and B, and association with nonlipid risk factors in the populations of two Canadian provinces: Québec and Saskatchewan. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group. Can J Cardiol 1999; 15: 40918.
  • 107
    Contois JH, McNamara JR, Lammi-Keefe CJ, Wilson PWF, Massow T, Schaefer EJ. Reference intervals for plasma apolipoprotein B determined with a standardized commercial immunoturbidimetric assay: results from the Framingham Offspring Study. Clin Chem 1996; 42: 51523.
  • 108
    Contois JH, McNamara JR, Lammi-Keefe CJ, Wilson PWF, Massow T, Schaefer EJ. Reference intervals for plasma apolipoprotein A-I determined with a standardized commercial immunoturbidimetric assay: results from the Framingham Offspring Study. Clin Chem 1996; 42: 50714.
  • 109
    Collins-Nakai RL, Dagenais GR. The role of the cardiovascular specialist in the prevention of cardiovascular disease – executive summary. Can J Cardiol 1999; 15(Suppl.): 7G16G.
  • 110
    Miremadi S, Sniderman A, Frohlich J. Can measurement of serum apolipoprotein B replace the lipid profile monitoring of patients with lipoprotein disorders? Clin Chem 2002; 48: 4848.
  • 111
    Behandling med lipidsänkande läkemedel vid prevention av hjärt-kärlsjukdom. Uppsala: Läkemedelsverket, 2003 (
  • 112
    Ose L. Kan lipoproteinmålninger erstatte vanliga lipidbestämmelser? Uppsala: Läkemedelsverket, 2003(; Vol. 14, 435.
  • 113
    Packard CJ. Apolipoproteins: the new prognostic indicator? Eur Heart J 2003; 5(Suppl.): D916.
  • 114
    Ballantyne CM, Hoogeveen RC. Role of lipid and lipoprotein profiles in risk assessment and therapy. Am Heart J 2003; 146: 22733.
  • 115
    De Backer G, Ambrosioni E, Borch-Johnsen K et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice. Third Joint Task Force of European and other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 160110.
  • 116
    Sniderman AD, St-Pierre AC, Cantin B, Dagenais GR, Després J-P, Lamarche B. Concordance/disconcordance between plasma apolipoprotein B levels and the cholesterol indexes of atherosclerotic risk. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91: 11737.
  • 117
    Conroy RM, Pyörälä AP, Fitzgerald S et al. Estimation of ten-year risk factor cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 9871003.
  • 118
    Nauck M, Warnick GR, Rifai N. Methods for measurement of LDL-cholesterol: a critical assessment of direct measurement by homogeneous assays versus calculation. Clin Chem 2002; 48: 23654.
  • 119
    Sniderman AD, Blank D, Zakarian R, Bergeron J, Frohlich J. Triglycerides and small dense LDL: the twin achilles heels of the Friedewald formula. Clin Biochem 2003; 36: 499504.
  • 120
    Maron DJ, Fazio S, Linton MF. Current perspectives on statins. Circulation 2000; 101: 20713.
  • 121
    LaRosa JC. Pleiotropic effects of statins and their clinical significance. Am J Cardiol 2001; 88: 2913.
  • 122
    Plenge JK, Hernandez TL, Weil KM et al. Simvastatin lowers C-reactive protein within 14 days: an effect independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction. Circulation 2002; 106: 144752.
  • 123
    Wilcox LJ, Barrett PHR, Huff MW. Differential regulation of apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells by two HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, atorvastatin and simvastatin. J Lipid Res 1999; 40: 107889.
  • 124
    Berglund L, Witztum JL, Galeano NF, Khouw AS, Ginsberg HN, Ramakrishnan R. Three-fold effect of lovastatin treatment on low-density lipoprotein metabolism in subjects with hyperlipidemia: increase in receptor activity, decrease in apo B production, and decrease in particle affinity for the receptor. Results from a novel triple-tracer approach. J Lipid Res 1998; 39: 91324.
  • 125
    Arad Y, Ramakrishnan R, Ginsberg HN. Effects of lovastatin therapy on very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia: evidence for reduced assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Metabolism 1992; 41: 48793.
  • 126
    Battula SB, Fitzsimons O, Moreno S et al. Postprandial apolipoprotein B48- and B100-containing lipoproteins in type 2 diabetes: do statins have a specific effect on triglyceride metabolism? Metabolism 2000; 49: 104954.
  • 127
    Martin G, Duez H, Blanquart C et al. Statin-induced inhibition of the Rho-signaling pathway activates PPARα and induces HDL apoA-I. J Clin Invest 2001; 107: 142332.
  • 128
    Insull W, Kafonek S, Goldner D, Zieve F. Comparison of efficacy and safety of atorvastatin (10 mg) with simvastatin (10 mg) at six weeks. ASSET Investigators. Am J Cardiol 2001; 87: 5549.
  • 129
    Strandberg TE, Vanhanen H, Tikkanen MJ. Associations between change in C-reactive protein and serum lipids during statin treatment. Ann Med 2000; 32: 57983.
  • 130
    Crouse JR 3rd, Frohlich J, Ose L, Mercuri M, Tobert JA. Effects of high doses of simvastatin and atorvastatin on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. Am J Cardiol 1999; 83: 14767.
  • 131
    Després JP, Lemieux I, Salomon H, Delaval D. Effect of micronized fenofibrate versus atorvastatin in the treatment of dyslipidemic patients with low plasma HDL-cholesterol levels: a 12-week randomized trial. J Intern Med 2002; 251: 4909.
  • 132
    Olsson AG, Istad H, Luurila O et al. Effect of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin compared over 52 weeks of treatment in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Am Heart J 2002; 144: 104451.
  • 133
    Olsson AG, McTaggart F, Raza A. Rosuvastatin: a highly effective new HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2002; 20: 30328.
  • 134
    Brown WV, Zedler BK, Bays HE, Hassman HA, Chitra RR, Miller E. Efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin compared with pravastatin and simvastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, double-blind, 52-week trial. Am Heart J 2002; 144: 103643.
  • 135
    Blasetto J, Stein E, Brown V, Chitra R, Raza A. Efficacy of rosuvastatin compared with other statins at selected starting doses in hypercholesterolemic patients and in special population groups. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91(Suppl.): 3C10C.
  • 136
    Davidson M, Ma P, Stein EA et al. Comparison of effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in patients with type IIa or IIb hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 2002; 89: 26875.
  • 137
    Stein E, Strutt K, Miller E, Southworth H. ZD4522 is superior to atorvastatin in the treatment of patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001; 37(Suppl. A): 292A.
  • 138
    Rader DJ, Davidson M, Caplan R, Pears J. Lipid and apolipoprotein ratios: association with coronary artery disease and effects of rosuvastatin compared with atorvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91(Suppl.): 20C4C.
  • 139
    Paoletti R, Fahmy M, Mahla G, Mizan J, Southworth H. Rosuvastatin demonstrates greater reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with pravastatin and simvastatin in hypercholesterolaemic patients: a randomized, double-blind study. J Cardiovasc Risk 2001; 8: 38390.
  • 140
    Jones PH, Davidson MH, Stein EA et al. STELLAR Study Group. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin across doses (STELLAR Trial). Am J Cardiol 2003; 92: 15260.
  • 141
    Schneck DW, Knopp RH, Ballantyne CM, McPherson R, Chitra RR, Simonson SG. Comparative effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin across their dose ranges in patients with hypercholesterolemia and without active arterial disease. Am J Cardiol 2003; 9: 3341.
  • 142
    Ruotolo G, Ericsson CG, Tettamanti C et al. Treatment effects on serum lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins and low density lipoprotein particle size and relationships of lipoprotein variables to progression of coronary artery disease in the Bezafibrate Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (BECAIT). J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 32: 164856.
  • 143
    Durrington PN, Mackness MI, Bhatnager D et al. Effects of two different fibric acid derivatives on lipoproteins, cholesteryl ester transfer, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor and paraoxonase activity in type IIb hyperlipoproteinaemia. Atherosclerosis 1998; 138: 21725.
  • 144
    Staels B, Auwerx J. Regulation of apo A-I gene expression by fibrates. Atherosclerosis 1998; 137(Suppl.): S1923.
  • 145
    Vu-Dac N, Chopin-Delannoy S, Gervois P et al. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and Rev-erbalpha mediate the species-specific regulation of apolipoprotein A-I expression by fibrates. J Biol Chem 1998; 273: 2571320.
  • 146
    Playford DA, Watts GF, Best JD, Burke V. Effect of fenofibrate on brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol 2002; 90: 12547.
  • 147
    Robins SJ. Fibrates and coronary heart disease reduction in diabetes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes 2002; 9: 31222.
  • 148
    Jin FY, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Niacin accelerates intracellular ApoB degradation by inhibiting triacylglycerol synthesis in human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999; 19: 10519.
  • 149
    Jin FY, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Niacin decreases removal of high-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-I but not cholesterol ester by Hep G2 cells. Implication for reverse cholesterol transport. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 20208.
  • 150
    Goldberg A, Alagona P Jr, Capuzzi DM et al. Multiple-dose efficacy and safety of an extended-release form of niacin in the management of hyperlipidemia. Am J Cardiol 2000; 85: 11005.
  • 151
    Guyton JR, Goldberg AC, Kreisberg RA, Specher DL, Superko HR, O'Connor CM. Effectiveness of once-nightly dosing of extended-release niacin alone and in combination for hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82: 73743.
  • 152
    Capuzzi DM, Guyton JR, Morgan JM et al. Efficacy and safety of an extended-release niacin (Niaspan): a long-term study. Am J Cardiol 1998; 82: 74U81U.
  • 153
    Sakai T, Kamanna VS, Kashyap ML. Niacin, but not gemfibrozil, selectively increases LP-AI, a cardioprotective subfraction of HDL, in patients with low HDL cholesterol. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21: 17839.
  • 154
    Atmeh RF, Shepherd J, Packard CJ. Subpopulations of apolipoprotein A-I in human high-density lipoproteins. Their metabolic properties and response to drug therapy. Biochim Biophys Acta 1983; 751: 17588.
  • 155
    Guyton JR, Blazing MA, Hagar J et al. Extended-release niacins vs gemfibrozil for the treatment of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Niaspan–Gemfibrozil Study Group. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 117784.
  • 156
    Eriksson M, Hådell K, Holme I, Walldius G, Kjellström T. Compliance with and efficacy of treatment with pravastatin and cholestyramine: a randomized study on lipid-lowering in primary care. J Intern Med 1998; 243: 37380.
  • 157
    Brown G, Albers JJ, Fisher LD et al. Regression of coronary artery disease as a result of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in men with high levels of apolipoprotein B. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 128998.
  • 158
    Bays HE, Dujovne CA, McGovern ME et al. Comparison of once-daily, niacin extended-release/lovastatin with standard doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin (The Advicor Versus Other Cholesterol-Modulating Agents Trial Evaluation [ADVOCATE]). Am J Cardiol 2003; 91: 66772.
  • 159
    Pierce LR, Wysowski DK, Gross TP. Myopathy and rhabdomyolysis associated with lovastatin-gemfibrozil combination therapy. JAMA 1990; 264: 715.
  • 160
    Schectman G, Hiatt J. Drug therapy for hypercholesterolemia in patients with cardiovascular disease: factors limiting achievement of lipid goals. Am J Med 1996; 100: 197204.
  • 161
    Shepherd J. Fibrates and statins in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia: an appraisal of their efficacy and safety. Eur Heart J 1995; 16: 513.
  • 162
    Furberg CD, Pitt B. Withdrawal of cerivastatin from the world market. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med 2001; 2: 2057.
  • 163
    Carmena R. Statins: monotherapy or combination strategy for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Heart Drug 2002; 2: 17583.