N-Terminal Splice Variants of the Type I PACAP Receptor: Isolation, Characterization and Ligand Binding/Selectivity Determinants


Frank M Dautzenberg Pharma Division, Preclinical Research, F-Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, 4070 Basel, Switzerland frank.dautzenberg@roche.com.


Three full-length cDNAs encoding functional splice variants of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1) were isolated from Y-79 retinoblastoma cells and human cerebellum. Although the third intracellular loops of the three splice variants were identical, their N-terminal extracellular domains differed. The first full-length PAC1 variant, PAC1normal (PAC1n), encoded the entire N-terminus, whereas the second variant named PAC1short (PAC1s) was deleted by 21 amino acids (residues 89–109). Finally, the third variant, named PAC1very short (PAC1vs), was deleted by 57 amino acids (residues 53–109). Using semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, it was established that all three variants were expressed in neuronal tissues. Binding- and cAMP studies using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably transfected with PAC1n, PAC1s and PAC1vs showed significant differences in the affinities and selectivities towards PACAP38, PACAP27 and VIP. PAC1n bound PACAP38 and PACAP27 with affinities in the low nanomolar range whereas VIP was bound with up to 400-fold lower affinity. PAC1vs preferentially bound PACAP38 (Ki=121 nM) and PACAP27 (Ki=129 nM) over VIP (Ki>1000 nM) but with 100-fold lower affinity than PAC1n. Surprisingly, PAC1s unselectively bound all three ligands with high affinity. These data indicate that residues 53–88 within the N-terminal domain of the PAC1 are important for high affinity ligand binding, whereas residues 89–109 determine the receptor’s ligand selectivity.