• 1
    Amenedo, E. and Diaz, F. Automatic and effortful processes in auditory memory reflected by event-related potentials. Age-related findings. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1998, 108: 361369.
  • 2
    Amenedo, E. and Diaz, F. Ageing-related changes in the processing of attended and unattended standard stimuli. Neuroreport, 1999, 10: 23832388.
  • 3
    Amzica, F. and Steriade, M. The K-complex: its slow (1-Hz) rhythmicity and relation to delta waves. Neurology, 1997, 49: 952959.
  • 4
    Amzica, F. and Steriade, M. Cellular substrates and laminar profile of sleep K-complex. Neuroscience, 1998a, 82: 671686.DOI: 10.1016/S0306-4522(97)00319-9
  • 5
    Amzica, F. and Steriade, M. Electrophysiological correlates of sleep delta waves. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1998b, 107: 6983.
  • 6
    Bastien, C. and Campbell, K. The evoked K-complex: all-or-none phenomenon? Sleep, 1992, 15: 236245.
  • 7
    Bastien, C. and Campbell, K. Effects of rate of tone-pip stimulation on the evoked K-complex. J. Sleep Res., 1994, 3: 6572.
  • 8
    Bastien, C., Ladouceur, C. and Campbell, K. B. EEG characteristics prior to and following the evoked K-complex. Can. J. Exp. Psychol., 2000, 54: 255265.
  • 9
    Blatter, D. D., Bigler, E. D., Gale, S. D., Johnson, S. C., Anderson, C., Burnett, B. M., Parker, N., Kurth, S. and Horn, S. Quantitative volume tric analysis of brain MRI: normative database spanning five decades of life. Am. J. Neuroradiol., 1995, 16: 241245.
  • 10
    Bliwise, D. L. Sleep in normal aging and dementia. Sleep, 1993, 16: 4081.
  • 11
    Blois, R., Feinberg, I., Gaillard, J. M., Kupfer, D. J. and Webb, W. B. Sleep in normal and pathological aging. Experientia, 1983, 39: 551558.
  • 12
    Campbell, K., Rouillard, L. and Bastien, C. Component structure of the evoked K-complex. In: J. Horne (Ed.) Sleep `90. Bochum, Pontenagel Press, 1990: 17–19.
  • 13
    Campbell, K., Bell, I. and Bastien, C. Evoked potential measures of information processing during natural sleep. In: Robert Ogilvie & Roger, J. Broughton (Eds) Sleep, Arousal and Performance: a Tribute to Bob Wilkinson. Boston, Birkhauser, 1992: 88–116.
  • 14
    Carskadon, M. A. and Dement, W. C. Sleep loss in elderly volunteers. Sleep, 1985, 8: 207221.
  • 15
    Coffey, C. E., Wilkinson, W. E., Parashos, I. A., Soady, S. A., Sullivan, R. J., Patterson, L. J., Figiel, G. S., Webb, M. C., Spritzer, C. E. and Djang, W. T. Quantitative cerebral anatomy of the aging human brain: a cross-sectional study using magnetic resonance imaging. Neurology, 1992, 42: 527536.
  • 16
    Coffey, C. E., Lucke, J. E., Saxton, J. A., Ratcliff, G., Unitas, L. J., Billig, B. and Bryan, R. N. Sex differences in brain aging: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch. Neurol., 1998, 55: 169179.
  • 17
    Colrain, I. M., Webster, K. E. and Hirst, G. The N550 component of the evoked K-complex: a modality non-specific response? J. Sleep Res., 1999, 8: 273280.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2869.1999.00163.x
  • 18
    Colrain, I. M., Di Parsia, P. and Gora, J. The impact of prestimulus EEG frequency on auditory evoked potentials during sleep onset. Can. J. Exp. Psychol, 2000a, 54: 243254.
  • 19
    Colrain, I. M., Webster, K. E., Hirst, G. and Campbell, K. B. The roles of vertex sharp waves and K-complexes in the generation of N300 in auditory and respiratory-related evoked potentials during early stage 2 NREM sleep. Sleep, 2000b, 23: 97106.
  • 20
    Cote, K. A., De Lugt, D. R. and Campbell, K. B. Topographical analysis of the auditory evoked K-complex. Sleep Res., 1996, 25: 55.
  • 21
    Cote, K. A., De Lugt, D. R., Langley, S. D. and Campbell, K. B. Scalp topography of the auditory evoked K-complex in stage 2 and slow wave sleep. J. Sleep Res., 1999, 8: 263272.
  • 22
    Cote, K. A., Epps, T. M. and Campbell, K. B. The role of the spindle in human information processing of high-intensity stimuli during sleep. J. Sleep Res., 2000, 9: 1926.
  • 23
    Cowell, P. E., Turetsky, B. I., Gur, R. C., Grossman, R. I., Shtasel, D. L. and Gur, R. E. Sex differences in aging of the human frontal and temporal lobes. J. Neurosci., 1994, 14: 47484755.
  • 24
    De Gennaro, L., Ferrara, M. and Bertini, M. The spontaneous K-complex during stage 2 sleep: is it the `forerunner' of delta waves? Neurosci. Lett., 2000, 291: 4143.
  • 25
    Dutertre, F. Catalogue of the main EEG patterns. In: A. Redmond (Ed.) Handbook of Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, Vol. 11A. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1977, 40–79.
  • 26
    Ehlers, C. L. and Kupfer, D. J. Effects of age on delta and REM sleep parameters. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1989, 72: 118125.
  • 27
    Ehlers, C. L. and Kupfer, D. J. Slow-wave sleep: do young adult men and women age differently? J. Sleep Res., 1997, 6: 211215.
  • 28
    Feinberg, I., Koresko, R. and Heller, N. EEG sleep patterns as a function of normal and pathological aging in man. J. Psychiatric Res., 1967, 10: 283306.
  • 29
    Garcia-Larrea, L., Lukaszewicz, A. C. and Mauguiere, F. Revisiting the oddball paradigm. Non-target vs neutral stimuli and the evaluation of ERP attentional effects. Neuropsychologia, 1992, 30: 723741.
  • 30
    Gora, J., Colrain, I. M. and Trinder, J. Respiratory-related evoked potentials during the transition from alpha to theta EEG activity in stage 1 NREM sleep. J. Sleep Res., 1999, 8: 123134.
  • 31
    Gora, J., Colrain, I. M. and Trinder, J. The investigation of K-complex and vertex sharp wave activity in response to mid-inspiratory occlusions and complete obstructions to breathing during NREM sleep. Sleep, 2001, 24: 8189.
  • 32
    Gur, R. C., Mozley, P. D., Resnick, S. M., Gottlieb, G. L., Kohn, M., Zimmerman, R., Herman, G., Atlas, S., Grossman, R., Berretta, D., Erwin, R. and Gur, R. E. Gender differences in age effect on brain atrophy measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 1991, 88: 28452849.
  • 33
    Halasz, P. Arousals without awakening – dynamic aspects of sleep. Physiol. Behav., 1993, 54: 795802.
  • 34
    Harsh, J., Voss, U., Hull, J., Schrepfer, S. and Badia, P. ERP and behavioral changes during the wake/sleep transition. Psychophysiology, 1994, 31: 244252.
  • 35
    International Federation of Societies for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology. A glossary of terms most commonly used by clinical electroencephalographers. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1974, 37: 538553.
  • 36
    Itoh, M., Hatazawa, J., Miyazawa, H., Matsui, H., Meguro, K., Yanai, K., Kubota, K., Watanuki, S., Ido, T. and Matsuzawa, T. Stability of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism during normal aging. Gerontology, 1990, 36: 4348.
  • 37
    Laffey, P. A., Peyster, R. G., Nathan, R., Haskin, M. E. and McGinley, J. A. Computed tomography and aging: results in a normal elderly population. Neuroradiology, 1984, 26: 273278.
  • 38
    Larsen, L., Moe, K., Vitiello, M. and Prinz, P. Age trends in the sleep EEG of healthy older men and women. J. Sleep Res., 1995, 4: 160172.
  • 39
    Loomis, A. L., Harvey, E. N. and Hobart, G. Potential rhythms of the cerebral cortex during sleep. Science, 1939, 81: 597598.
  • 40
    De Lugt, D. R., Loewy, D. H. and Campbell, K. B. The effect of sleep onset on event related potentials with rapid rates of stimulus presentation. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1996, 98: 484492.
  • 41
    Matsumae, M., Kikinis, R., Morocz, I. A., Lorenzo, A. V., Sandor, T., Albert, M. S., Black, P. L. and Jolesz, F. A. Age-related changes in intracranial compartment volumes in normal adults assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. J. Neurosurg., 1996, 84: 982991.
  • 42
    McCarthy, G. and Wood, C. C. Scalp distributions of event-related potentials: an ambiguity associated with analysis of variance models. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1985, 62: 203208.
  • 43
    McCormick, D. A. and Pape, H. C. Properties of a hyperpolarization-activated cation current and its role in rhythmic oscillation in thalamic relay neurones. J. Physiol. (London), 1990, 431: 291318.
  • 44
    Miller, A. K., Alston, R. L. and Corsellis, J. A. Variation with age in the volumes of grey and white matter in the cerebral hemispheres of man: measurements with an image analyser. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol., 1980, 6: 119132.
  • 45
    Murphy, D. G. M., Decarli, C., Mcintosh, A. R., Daly, E., Mentis, M. J., Pietrini, P., Szczepanik, J., Schapiro, M. B., Grady, C. L., Horwitz, B. and Rapoport, S. I. Sex differences in human brain morphometry and metabolism: an in vivo quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography study on the effect of aging. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1996, 53: 585594.
  • 46
    Naatanen, R. and Picton, T. The N1 wave of the human electric and magnetic response to sound: a review and an analysis of the component structure. Psychophysiology, 1987, 24: 375425.
  • 47
    Niiyama, Y., Fujiwara, R., Satoh, N. and Hishikawa, Y. Endogenous components of event-related potential appearing during NREM stage 1 and REM sleep in man. Int. J. Psychophysiol., 1994, 17: 165174.
  • 48
    Niiyama, Y., Fushimi, M., Sekine, A. and Hishikawa, Y. K-complex evoked in NREM sleep is accompanied by a slow negative potential related to cognitive process. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1995, 95: 2733.
  • 49
    Novak, G., Ritter, W. and Vaughan, H. G. Jr Mismatch detection and the latency of temporal judgements. Psychophysiology, 1992, 29: 398411.
  • 50
    Ogilvie, R. D., Simons, I. A., Kuderian, R. H., MacDonald, T. and Rustenburg, J. Behavioral, event-related potential, and EEG/FFT changes at sleep onset. Psychophysiology, 1991, 28: 5464.
  • 51
    Paiva, T. and Rosa, A. The K-complex variability in normal subjects. In: M. Terzano, P. Halasz and A. Declerck, (Eds) Phasic Events and Dynamic Organization of Sleep. Raven Press, New York, 1991, 167–184.
  • 52
    Pfefferbaum, A., Ford, J. M., Wenegrat, B. G., Roth, W. T. and Kopell, B. S. Clinical application of the P3 component of event-related potentials. I. Normal aging. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1984, 59: 85103.
  • 53
    Pfefferbaum, A., Lim, K. O., Zipursky, R. B., Mathalon, D. H., Lane, B., Ha, C. N., Rosenbloom, M. J. and Sullivan, E. V. Brain gray and white matter volume loss accelerates with aging in chronic alcoholics: a quantitative MRI study. Alcohol Clin. Exp. Res., 1992, 16: 10781089.
  • 54
    Pfefferbaum, A., Mathalon, D. H., Sullivan, E. V., Rawles, J. M., Zipursky, R. B. and Lim, K. O. A quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study of changes in brain morphology from infancy to late adulthood. Arch. Neurol., 1994, 51: 874887.
  • 55
    Pfefferbaum, A., Sullivan, E., Rosenbloom, M. J., Mathalon, D. H. and Lim, K. O. A controlled study of cortical gray matter and ventricular changes in alcoholic men over a five year interval. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 1998, 55: 905912.
  • 56
    Pfefferbaum, A., Adalsteinsson, E., Spielman, D., Sullivan, E. V. and Lim, K. O. In vivo spectroscopic quantification of the N-acetyl moiety, creatine, and choline from large volumes of brain gray and white matter: effects of normal aging. Magn. Reson. Med., 1999, 41: 276284.DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2594(199902)41:2<276::AID-MRM10>3.0.CO;2-8
  • 57
    Raz, N., Gunning, F. M., Head, D., Dupuis, J. H., McQuain, J., Briggs, S. D., Loken, W. J., Thornton, A. E. and Acker, J. D. Selective aging of the human cerebral cortex observed in vivo: differential vulnerability of the prefrontal gray matter. Cerebral Cortex, 1997, 7: 268282.
  • 58
    Rechtschaffen, A. and Kales, A. A Manual of Standardised Terminology, Techniques and Scoring Systems for Sleep Stages of Human Subjects. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1968.
  • 59
    Rediehs, M. H., Reis, J. S. and Creason, N. S. Sleep in old age: focus on gender differences. Sleep, 1990, 13: 410424.
  • 60
    Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Hoch, C. C., Jennings, J. R., Buysse, D. J., Houck, P. R., Jarrett, D. B. and Kupfer, D. J. Electroencephalographic sleep in the healthy `old old': a comparison with the `young old' in visually scored and automated measures. J. Gerontol., 1991, 46: M39M46.
  • 61
    Sallinen, M., Kaartinen, J. and Lyytinen, H. Is the appearance of mismatch negativity during stage 2 sleep related to the elicitation of K-complex? Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1994, 91: 140148.
  • 62
    Sallinen, M., Kaartinen, J. and Lyytinen, H. Precursors of the evoked K-complex in event-related brain potentials in stage 2 sleep. Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol., 1997, 102: 363373.
  • 63
    Simon, N. R., Manshanden, I. and Lopes da Silva, F. H. A MEG study of sleep. Brain Res., 2000, 860: 6476.
  • 64
    Steriade, M. and Deschenes, M. The thalamus as a neuronal oscillator. Brain Res., 1984, 320: 163.
  • 65
    Steriade, M., McCormick, D. A. and Sejnowski, T. J. Thalamocortical oscillations in the sleeping and aroused brain. Science, 1993, 262: 679685.
  • 66
    Sullivan, E. V., Shear, P. K., Mathalon, D. H., Lim, K. O., Yesavage, J. A., Tinklenberg, J. R. and Pfefferbaum, A. Greater abnormalities of brain cerebrospinal fluid volumes in younger than in older patients with Alzheimer's disease. Arch. Neurol., 1993, 50: 359373.
  • 67
    Sullivan, E. V., Marsh, L., Mathalon, D. H., Lim, K. O. and Pfefferbaum, A. Age-related decline in MRI volumes of temporal lobe gray matter but not hippocampus. Neurobiol. Aging, 1995, 16: 591606.
  • 68
    Wauquier, A. K-complexes: are they signs of arousal or sleep protective? J. Sleep Res., 1995, 4: 138143.
  • 69
    Wauquier, A., Van Sweden, B., Lagaay, A. M., Kemp, B. and Kamphuisen, H. A. Ambulatory monitoring of sleep–wakefulness patterns in healthy elderly males and females (greater than 88 years): the `Senieur' protocol. J. Am. Geriatric Soc., 1992, 40: 109114.
  • 70
    Webb, W. B. Sleep in older persons: sleep structures of 50- to 60-year-old men and women. J. Gerontol., 1982, 37: 581586.
  • 71
    Webster, K. E. and Colrain, I. M. Multichannel EEG analysis of respiratory evoked-potential components during wakefulness and NREM sleep. J. Appl. Physiol., 1998, 85: 17271735.
  • 72
    Zepelin, H., McDonald, C. S. and Zammit, G. K. Effects of age on auditory awakening thresholds. J. Gerontol., 1984, 39: 294300.