To investigate the pathophysiology of narcoleptic patients' sleep in detail, we analysed and compared the whole-night polysomnograms of narcoleptic patients and normal human subjects. Eight drug-naive narcoleptic patients and eight age-matched normal volunteers underwent polysomnography (PSG) on two consecutive nights. In addition to conventional visual scoring of the polysomnograms, rapid eye movement (REM)-density and electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectra analyses were also performed. Sleep onset REM periods and fragmented nocturnal sleep were observed as expected in our narcoleptic patients. In the narcoleptic patients, REM period duration across the night did not show the significant increasing trend that is usually observed in normal subjects. In all narcoleptic patient REM periods, eye movement densities were significantly increased. The power spectra of narcoleptic REM sleep significantly increased between 0.3 and 0.9 Hz and decreased between 1.0 and 5.4 Hz. Further analysis revealed that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period duration and the declining trend of delta power density in the narcoleptic patients were not significantly different from the normal subjects. Compared with normal subjects, the power spectra of narcoleptic NREM sleep increased in the 1.0–1.4 Hz and 11.0–11.9 Hz frequency bands, and decreased in a 24.0–26.9 Hz frequency band. Thus, increased EEG delta and decreased beta power densities were commonly observed in both the NREM and REM sleep of the narcoleptic patients, although the decrease in beta power during REM sleep was not statistically significant. Our visual analysis revealed fragmented nocturnal sleep and increased phasic REM components in the narcoleptic patients, which suggest the disturbance of sleep maintenance mechanism(s) and excessive effects of the mechanism(s) underlying eye movement activities during REM sleep in narcolepsy. Spectral analysis revealed significant increases in delta components and decreases in beta components, which suggest decreased activity in central arousal mechanisms. These characteristics lead us to hypothesize that two countervailing mechanisms underlie narcoleptic sleep pathology.