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The single-dose disposition kinetics of danofloxacin were determined in clinically normal lactating cows after intravenous (i.v.) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of the drug at 1.25 mg/kg. The drug concentrations in blood serum and milk were determined by microbiological assay methods and the data were subjected to kinetic analysis. The mean i.v. and i.m. elimination half-lives (t½el) in serum were 54.9 and 135.7 min, respectively. The steady-state volume of distribution (Vss) was 2.04 L/kg. The drug was quickly absorbed after i.m. injection but a ‘flip flop’ effect was clearly evident and bioavailability was > 100%. Penetration of danofloxacin from blood into milk was rapid and extensive with drug concentrations in milk exceeding those in serum beginning 90–120 min after i.v. and i.m. administration and onwards. Milk danofloxacin concentrations equal to or higher than the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria and Mycoplasma species were maintained over ≈ 24 h.

 Concentrations greater than the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus were maintained in the milk for 12 h.