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The serum and synovial pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin (AMX) were studied after i.v. administration at a dosage of 40 mg/kg to normal horses and horses with induced aseptic carpal arthritis. The best estimates of serum and synovial pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by mono or bivariable non-linear regression analysis. A biexponential equation was used to describe the concentration vs. time profiles in both normal and arthritic horses. There were no serum kinetic differences between normal and arthritic horses. There were, however, major synovial kinetic changes between these groups. The rate of penetration from serum to synovial fluid was larger in arthritic animals, indicating better penetration in this case. On the other hand, the rate of disappearance from synovial fluid was larger in normal horses, indicating more persistence of the drug in the diseased joint. Synovial AMX availability increased from 21% in normal horses to 79% in arthritic horses. These findings support the use of AMX for the treatment of infectious synovial joint disease produced by susceptible organisms in horses.