The pharmacokinetics of cefepime, a new fourth generation cephalosporin with enhanced antibacterial activity, was examined in neonatal foals and adult dogs. Cefepime was administered intravenously (i.v.) at a dose of 14 mg/kg to five neonatal foals and six adult dogs. Blood samples were collected in both groups of animals and plasma cefepime concentrations measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cefepime concentrations in both groups of animals were described by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with elimination half-lives of 1.65 and 1.09 h for the foal and dog, respectively. We tested whether or not pharmacokinetic parameters for cefepime could be scaled across species using principles of allometry. The parameters of elimination half-life (t½β), apparent volume of distribution (VDarea), and systemic clearance (CL) were scaled linearly to body weight on a double logarithmic plot with allometric exponents for body weight of 0.26, 1.08 and 0.72, respectively. This study further determined doses for cefepime, a potentially useful antibiotic for neonatal foals and dogs, from the pharmacokinetic values. An i.v. dose of cefepime estimated from this study for treating sensitive bacteria was 11 mg/kg every 8 h for neonatal foals and 40 mg/kg every 6 h for dogs.