Pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin in pigs and broilers following intravenous, intramuscular, and oral single-dose applications

Authors

  • H. Z. Ding,

    1. Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, P. R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Z. L. Zeng,

    1. Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, P. R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • K. F. Fung,

    1. Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, P. R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Z. L. Chen,

    1. Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, P. R. China
    Search for more papers by this author
  • G. L. Qiao

    1. Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

G. L. Qiao NIOSH/CDC, MS 3030, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA. E-mail: gqiao@cdc.gov

Abstract

Pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, was determined in pigs and broilers after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), or oral (p.o.) administration at a single dose of 5 (pigs) or 10 mg/kg (broilers). Plasma concentration profiles were analysed by a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic method. Following i.v., i.m. and p.o. doses, the elimination half-lives (t1/2β) were 3.37 ± 0.46, 4.66 ± 1.34, 7.20 ± 1.92 (pigs) and 2.53 ± 0.82, 6.81 ± 2.04, 3.89 ± 1.19 h (broilers), respectively. After i.m. and p.o. doses, bioavailabilities (F) were 81.8 ± 9.8 and 42.6 ± 8.2% (pigs) and 72.1 ± 8.1 and 59.6 ± 13.8% (broilers), respectively. Steady-state distribution volumes (Vd(ss)) of 1.92 ± 0.27 and 3.40 ± 1.26 L/kg and total body clearances (ClB) of 0.51 ± 0.03 and 1.20 ± 0.20 L/kg/h were determined in pigs and broilers, respectively. Areas under the curve (AUC), mean residence times (MRT), and mean absorption times (MAT) were also determined. Sarafloxacin was demonstrated to be more rapidly absorbed, more extensively distributed, and more quickly eliminated in broilers than in pigs. Based on the single-dose pharmacokinetic parameters determined, multiple dosage regimens were recommended as: a dosage of 10 mg/kg given intramuscularly every 12 h in pigs, or administered orally every 8 h in broilers, can maintain effective plasma concentrations with bacteria infections, in which MIC90 are <0.25 μg/mL.

Ancillary