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A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK) for oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in sheep was developed using previously published data from a combined serum pharmacokinetic and tissue residue study [Craigmill et al. (2000)J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther.23, 345]. Physiological parameters for organ weights and tissue blood flows were obtained from the literature. The tissue/serum partition coefficients for OTC were estimated from the serum and tissue residue data obtained at slaughter. The model was developed to include all of the tissues for which residue data were available (serum, kidney, liver, fat, muscle and injection site), and all of the remaining tissues were combined into a slowly perfused compartment with low permeability. Total body clearance of OTC calculated in the previous study was used as the starting value for clearance in the PBPK model, with the kidney being the only eliminating organ. The model was built using ACSL (Advanced Continuous Simulation Language) Graphic Modeler®, and the model was fit to the serum and tissue data using the ACSL Math/Optimizer® software (AEgis Technologies Group, Inc., Huntsville, AL, USA). A sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine which parameters had the greatest effect on the goodness of fit. Numerous strategies were tested to model the injection site, and a model providing a biexponential absorption of the drug from the injection bolus gave the best fit to the experimental data. The model was validated using the clearance parameters calculated from the traditional pharmacokinetic model for each individual animal in the PBPK model. This simple PBPK model well predicted OTC residues in sheep tissues after intramuscular dosing with a long-acting preparation and may find use for other species and other veterinary drugs.