The aim of this study was to evaluate the disposition of cyclosporine after intravenous (i.v.) and oral administration and to evaluate single sampling times for therapeutic monitoring of cyclosporine drug concentrations in cats. Six adult male cats (clinically intact) were used. Two treatments consisting of a single i.v. cyclosporine (1 mg/kg) and multiple oral cyclosporine (3 mg/kg b.i.d p.o. for 2 weeks) doses. Whole blood cyclosporine concentrations were measured at fixed times by high performance liquid chromatography and pharmacokinetic values were calculated. Mean values for the i.v. data included AUC (7413 ng/mL·h), t1/2 distribution and elimination (0.705 and 9.7 h, respectively), Cmax (1513 ng/mL), and Vd(ss) (1.71 L/kg). Mean values for the oral data included AUC (6243 ng/mL·h), t1/2 of absorption and elimination (0.227 and 8.19 h, respectively), and Cmax (480.0 ng/mL). Bioavailability of orally administered cyclosporine was 29 and 25% on days 7 and 14 respectively. Whole blood comment cyclosporine concentration 2 h after administration (C2) better correlated with AUC on days 7 and 14 than trough plasma concentration (C12). The rate of oral cyclosporine absorption was less than expected and there was substantial individual variation. Therapeutic drug monitoring strategies for cyclosporine in cats should be re-evaluated.