The pathogenesis of the fulminant hepatitis B is poorly understood and both viral factors and the hosts immune response play a role. Previous studies in liver tissues of patients with chronic hepatitis B showed overexpression of Fas antigen and this was correlated with the activity of the hepatitis. The present study was done to determine the role of Fas in fulminant hepatitis B and the virological characteristics of hepatitis B infection.
We studied three patients with fulminant hepatitis B. HBV-DNA was detected by dot-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. The S and C gene were sequenced. Levels of serum soluble Fas antigen were detected by enzymoimmunoassays procedure. Apoptosis was determined by the TUNEL technique. Fas antigen expression was evaluated by a immunoperoxidase method. Ten healthy subjects acted as controls.
The three patients showed a high expression of Fas antigen particularly among infiltrating lymphocytes; in these areas we also found many cells with in situ DNA nick labelling signals in the nuclei of most viable hepatocytes. Serum levels of soluble Fas antigen were higher in patients with fulminant hepatitis B than in controls. No specific genome mutations of hepatitis B virus were found.
These data suggest that the Fas system involved in the liver injury of patients with fulminant hepatitis B.