A status survey of Asian Elephants Elephas maximus was conducted in the 9 north-eastern states of India. The habitat is contiguous with that in Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Although the estimated population of 11 000 elephants is higher than in other regions of the Indian Sub-continent, it is fragmented and a number of small inviable isolated populations have formed. About 35% of the population is partly protected, but protection is inadequate. More areas and migration routes need to be protected. Man–elephant conflict is serious in many areas. A comprehensive Action Plan with a more pragmatic protected-area network has been proposed.