Intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation was studied among arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. DNA was extracted from single spores and variation was analysed by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism). The patterns of amplified fragments revealed substantial genetic variation between spores from the same isolates. Possible recombination in the fungi was studied by comparing the obtained data with data generated by artificial recombination of the data sets. No evidence for recombination was found by the analysis, suggesting that the fungi reproduce clonally. The AFLP technique generated a large number of fragments, and the potential for using the technique in population genetic studies of these important unculturable biotrophic fungi is discussed.