Using a polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) method to obtain genotypes for the diploid pathogenic yeast, Candidaalbicans, we analysed 204 C. albicans isolates from three populations of the Duke University community: two from clinical sources [one from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the other from patients without HIV infection], and the third from healthy student volunteers. The results indicated: (i) extensive evidence for clonality within and between populations of C. albicans; and (ii) greater genotypic and gene diversities in the nonclinical population than those derived from clinical specimens, regardless of HIV status. The two clinical populations were genetically more similar to each other than either was to the population consisting of isolates from healthy people. Within each population sample there was a general lack of heterozygotes, and random associations of alleles within and between loci were found in less than 50% of the loci or pairs of loci. These findings were consistent between the two sets of samples analysed: those including all isolates and those including only clone-corrected isolates. Possible mechanisms are presented to explain the observed patterns of genetic variation within and between C. albicans populations.