The genetic structure of the wood-decay fungus Fomitopsis rosea (Alb. et Schw. Fr.) Karst is presented for populations sampled in Russia, Sweden and Finland. A total of 11 variable arbitrary primed (AP)–PCR markers were found to be segregated in a 1:1 ratio. The genotype for each fruiting body was inferred from the genotypes of the haploid single-spore isolates. Observed heterozygosity was lowest in southern Fennoscandia, the area with the longest history of forestry management. Overall, there was a deficit of heterozygotes compared with frequencies of heterozygotes predicted from Hardy–Weinberg expectations. When we partitioned the deficit of heterozygotes into the hierarchical genetic structure by means of F-statistics we found that the possible causes for it were both limited gene flow between regions and local nonrandom mating within all populations. Future management for the conservation of F. rosea populations and how the results relate to the life cycle of basidomycete fungi are discussed.