The genetic structure of six Iberian populations of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, two of them biotype Q, one biotype B, and the other three a mixture of both, has been studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA–polymerase chain reaction (RAPD–PCR). A total of 336 individuals was completely discriminated by means of 234 scored bands. Separate analyses of molecular variance of haploid males and diploid females using the pairwise number of differences between haplotypes showed that biotypes contribute significantly more to the observed variability than populations within biotypes. On average, gene flow between two biotypes of the same population is lower than between populations of identical biotypes. On the basis of these results and the nondetection under natural conditions of a single hybrid, we consider that both biotypes are genetically isolated under the ecological conditions prevailing in the south Iberian Peninsula. All populations of biotype Q presented similar values of intrapopulational diversity, which were higher than the values shown by populations of biotype B.