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Assignment of paternity groups without access to parental genotypes: multiple mating and developmental plasticity in squid


Aidan Emery. *Present address: The Natural History Museum, Department of Zoology, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK. Fax: + 44 (0) 20 79425518;


We present a novel approach to investigating sibling relationships and reconstructing parental genotypes from a progeny array. The Bayesian method we have employed is flexible and may be applicable to a variety of situations in addition to the one presented here. While mutation rates and breeding population allele frequencies can be taken into account, the model requires relatively few loci and makes few assumptions. Paternity of 270 veined squid (Loligo forbesi) hatchlings from three egg strings collected from one location was assigned using five microsatellite loci. Paternal and maternal genotypes reconstructed for each of the three strings were identical, strongly indicating that a single female produced the strings that were fertilized by the same four males. The proportion of eggs fertilized was not equal between males in all three strings, with male 1 siring most offspring (up to 68% in string 1), through to male 4 siring the least (as low as 2.4% in string 1). Although temperature had a profound effect on incubation time, paternity did not affect this trait at 12 °C or 8 °C.