The genetic variation of brown trout from Duero, one of the main Atlantic Iberian river basins, was assessed at 34 enzymatic loci in 62 native populations. A strong intrabasin differentiation was detected (GST = 0.46; range D: 0–0.066), mainly attributable to the existence of two divergent groups of populations within Duero: southern and northern groups. This divergence was mainly a consequence of the unequal distribution of *75 and *100 alleles at sMDH-B1,2* isoloci, which were correlated with substantial differences in genetic diversity among regions. The Lower Course region (nearly fixed for the *100 allele) and Pisuerga River (nearly fixed for the *75 allele) showed lower heterozygosities (H ≈ 0.8%) in contrast with adjacent areas, which evidenced intermediate frequencies for both alleles and higher heterozygosities (H: 2.2–3.1%). Vicariance appeared as the more probable explanation for the significant positive correlation detected between genetic and geographical distances in Duero Basin. Genetic relationships with adjacent Iberian drainages indicate a close similarity between the southern group and Cantabric trout, whereas the northern group constitutes an ancient form from this basin. This study confirmed complex genetic relationships in brown trout from northwest Iberia, reasserting the existence of clines at several loci and for genetic diversity. The interaction between Cantabric and Duero trout, as well as the location of the limit of the anadromous form around the 42° N parallel, are both required to understand the genetic characteristics of brown trout from this area.