Many aspects of sea turtle biology are difficult to measure in these enigmatic migratory species, and this lack of knowledge continues to hamper conservation efforts. The first study of paternity in a sea turtle species used allozyme analysis to suggest multiple paternity in loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) clutches in Australia. Subsequent studies indicated that the frequency of multiple paternity varies from species to species and perhaps location to location. This study examined fine-scale population structure and paternal contribution to loggerhead clutches on Melbourne Beach, FL, USA using microsatellite markers. Mothers and offspring from 70 nests collected at two locations were analysed using two to four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Fine-scale population differentiation was not evident between the sampled locations, separated by 8 km. Multiple paternity was common in loggerhead nests on Melbourne Beach; 22 of 70 clutches had more than one father, and six had more than two fathers. This is the first time that more than two fathers have been detected for offspring in individual sea turtle nests. Paternal genotypes could not be assigned with confidence in clutches with more than two fathers, leaving the question of male philopatry unanswered. Given the high incidence of multiple paternity, we conclude that males are not a limiting resource for this central Florida nesting aggregate.