Population genetic structure of the fungal wheat pathogen Tapesia yallundae in Washington State was determined using genetically characterized amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) markers and mating-type (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2). Segregation and linkage relationships among 164 AFLP markers and MAT were analysed using 59 progeny derived from an in vitro cross. Alleles at 158 AFLP loci and the mating-type locus segregated in a 1:1 ratio. Ten unlinked markers were chosen to determine genetic and genotypic diversity and to test the hypothesis of random mating and population differentiation among five subpopulations of T. yallundae representative of the geographical distribution of wheat production in eastern Washington. Among 228 isolates collected, overall gene diversity was high (h = 0.425) and a total of 91 unique multilocus genotypes (MLG) were identified, with 32 MLG occurring at least twice. The overall population genetic structure was consistent with random mating based on the segregation of mating-type, index of association (IA), parsimony tree length permutation test (PTLPT) and genotypic diversity analyses. However, clonal genotypes were found within each subpopulation and were also distributed among the five subpopulations. No significant differences in allele frequencies were found among the five subpopulations for all 10 loci based on contingency table analysis (G2) and Wier & Cockerham's population differentiation statistic θ (θ = −0.008, P = 0.722). T. yallundae appears to consist of a large homogeneous population throughout eastern Washington with both sexual and asexual reproduction contributing to the observed population genetic structure despite no report of sexual fruiting bodies of T. yallundae occurring under natural field conditions.