The genetic differences among three colour morphotypes of the black rockish, Sebastes inermis, were determined from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) analyses. In the AFLP analysis, each morphotype could be distinguished by the presence or absence matrix of five AFLP loci. These diagnostic loci indicated that the three morphotypes represented independent gene pools, indicating reproductive isolation. Furthermore, 14 significant frequency differences in AFLP fragments were observed between morphotypes A and B, 12 between morphotypes A and C and six between morphotypes B and C. These significant differences also supported the likelihood of reproductive isolation among the morphotypes. In the mtDNA analysis, variations in partial sequences of the control region failed to distinguish clearly between the three morphotypes, but restrictions of gene flow and genetic differentiation among the morphotypes were supported by significant FST estimates. The absence of diagnostic mtDNA differences in this study may have been due to introgressive hybridization among the morphotypes and/or incomplete lineage sorting, due to the recency of speciation.