Range-wide variation of maritime pine was studied at maternally inherited and paternally inherited markers (mitochondrial DNA and chloroplast DNA). While chloroplast DNA exhibits the highest diversity, phylogeographic inferences from this marker are blurred by homoplasy and extensive pollen flow. In contrast, the only three mitochondrial haplotypes found provide a clear picture of nonoverlapping areas colonized from different refugia, with no single population having a mixed composition (GST = 1). Comparison of the genetic structure inferred from both organelle genomes allows the investigation of differential seed and pollen dispersal, pointing to pollen, but not seed, dispersal across the Strait of Gibraltar (from Morocco into Iberia). A comparison with already available genetic information, especially that of one of the maritime pine's most threatening insect pests, the bast scale Matsucoccus feytaudi, further completes the picture.