We evaluated the genetic structure of birds from four closely spaced leks in a peripheral population of lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). Analyses of molecular variance revealed significant genetic structuring among birds from different leks for six microsatellite loci (FST = 0.036; P = 0.002), but we found no genetic differentiation at the mtDNA control region. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg revealed an excess of homozygote genotypes within each of the leks studied (FIS = 0.190–0.307), indicative of increased inbreeding. Estimates of relatedness using microsatellite data suggest that the genetic structuring among lesser prairie-chicken leks occurs in part because of a lek mating system in which males at some leks are related. Structuring may also be caused by stochastic effects associated with a historical decline in population size leading to small, semi-isolated leks and high site fidelity by reproductive males. Results from this study suggest that microspatial genetic structuring may occur in lek-mating bird species with low levels of dispersal.