The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of individuals from 79 colonies of Apis mellifera from five Canary Islands was studied using the DraI test based on the restriction of PCR products of the tRNAleu–COII intergenic region. Five haplotypes of the African (A) lineage and one of the west European (C) lineage were found. The haplotypes A14 and A15 are described for the first time. These haplotypes have a new P sequence named P1. The wide distribution and high frequency of haplotype A15 suggest that it is characteristic of the Canarian Archipelago. Sources of haplotype variability of honeybee mtDNA in the Canary Islands (waves of colonization from Africa, queen importations, habitat diversification) are discussed.